How broad-based is broad-based black economic empowerment?

@article{Patel2012HowBI,
  title={How broad-based is broad-based black economic empowerment?},
  author={Leila Patel and Lauren Graham},
  journal={Development Southern Africa},
  year={2012},
  volume={29},
  pages={193 - 207}
}
Common perceptions about broad-based black economic empowerment (BBBEE) have been that it is nothing more than a tool for the already affluent to access further wealth and has limited potential to address the economic exclusion of the most marginalised. An analysis was conducted of data on black economic empowerment (BEE) deals between 2004 and 2009. The findings demonstrate that although the elite continue to benefit from deals, broad-based beneficiaries, particularly employees and women, are… 

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