How breastfeeding works.

  title={How breastfeeding works.},
  author={Jacqueline Coral Kent},
  journal={Journal of midwifery \& women's health},
  volume={52 6},
  • J. Kent
  • Published 12 November 2007
  • Medicine
  • Journal of midwifery & women's health

Figures from this paper

Factors Affecting the Composition of Expressed Fresh Human Milk.

In the absence of breastfeeding, expressed breast milk is the best way to provide nutrition and many factors such as maternal diet and medications affect the constituents of breast milk.

Variation in Fat, Lactose, and Protein Composition in Breast Milk over 24 Hours

The association between milk protein intake and the breastfeeding frequency suggests that the protein intake may play a role in infant appetite control.

Trace Elements in the Human Milk

An extensive review of the most recent literature was carried out focusing on the current trace elements levels and their changes during lactation.

Trace Elements in the Human Milk Trace Elements in the Human Milk

Human breast milk is considered to be the perfect food for infants, specifically adapted to their needs. Before birth, the mother transfers all the nutrients and bioactive components to the fetus

Impact of Maternal Diet on Human Milk Composition Among Lactating Women in Latvia

Background and objectives: Many studies indicate that the maternal diet is an important factor affecting human milk composition. Human milk composition among lactating women in Latvia, as well as the

Oral galactagogues (natural therapies or drugs) for increasing breast milk production in mothers of non-hospitalised term infants.

The overall certainty of evidence was low to very low because of high risk of biases, substantial clinical and statistical heterogeneity, and imprecision of measurements.

Normal Human Lactation: closing the gap

A definition is proposed that highlights four key elements that describe parameters for biological normality: comfort, milk supply, infant health, and maternal health that provide a preliminary objective framework for the assessment of human lactation.

Perspective: Should Exclusive Breastfeeding Still Be Recommended for 6 Months?

No evidence is found to support changes to the EBF-6 public health recommendation, although variability in inter-infant developmental readiness is recognized, and infant and young feeding guidelines make clear that complementary foods should be introduced at around 6 mo of age, taking infant developmental readiness into account.



Volume and Frequency of Breastfeedings and Fat Content of Breast Milk Throughout the Day

Breastfed infants should be encouraged to feed on demand, day and night, rather than conform to an average that may not be appropriate for the mother-infant dyad.

Maternal nutrition and the regulation of milk synthesis

Diverse observations the advantages of human milk and the rationale for the recommendation that breast milk should be the infant's only source of nutriment for the first 4-6 months of life are provided.

Changes in human milk composition during the initiation of lactation.

  • J. KulskiP. Hartmann
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Australian journal of experimental biology and medical science
  • 1981
The findings showed that the initiation of lactation developed in two phases, first a limited secretion of milk constituents in late pregnancy and then true induction of lactATION (lactogenesis) 32-40 h after delivery.

The short‐term synthesis and infant‐regulated removal of milk in lactating women

It was concluded that the infants were self‐regulating their milk intake and the storage capacity of the breast, variations in the short‐term rates of Milk synthesis and responsiveness of milk synthesis to the degree of breast emptying provided mechanisms whereby maternal milk supply could be directly linked to infant demand.

Milk Lactose, Citrate, and Glucose as Markers of Lactogenesis in Normal and Diabetic Women

It is concluded that for individual mothers, milk lactose and citrate are useful markers of lactogenesis I, and the changes in the concentrations of these markers suggested that lactogenesis II was delayed in type I diabetic mothers.

Studies in human lactation: milk volume and nutrient composition during weaning and lactogenesis.

Differences between the relation of milk volume and composition during lactogenesis and weaning suggest that volume is differently regulated in the two periods.

The volume and composition of human milk in poorly nourished communities. A review.

A review of various studies on breast milk suggests the need for more coordinated comparative studies into all aspects of human lactation in well-nourished and poorly nourished communities using

Changes in the composition of the mammary secretion of women after abrupt termination of breast feeding.

The observations indicated that the secretory capability of the mammary gland of women changed dramatically after complete cessation of breast feeding but that the involuting gland remained partially functional for a long period.

Breast Volume and Milk Production During Extended Lactation in Women

There was an apparent increased efficiency of the breast (milk production per unit breast tissue) after 6 months, which may have been due to redistribution of tissues within the breast.


It is demonstrated that milk production can be maintained in women with normal levels of prolactin and suggested that prolACTin plays a permissive role in established lactation.