How big can a black hole grow

@article{King2016HowBC,
  title={How big can a black hole grow},
  author={Andrew King},
  journal={Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
  year={2016},
  volume={456}
}
  • A. King
  • Published 26 November 2015
  • Physics
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
I show that there is a physical limit to the mass of a black hole, above which it cannot grow through luminous accretion of gas, and so cannot appear as a quasar or active galactic nucleus (AGN). The limit is Mmax ≃ 5 × 1010 M⊙ for typical parameters, but can reach Mmax ≃ 2.7 × 1011 M⊙ in extreme cases (e.g. maximal prograde spin). The largest black hole masses so far found are close to but below the limit. The Eddington luminosity ≃6.5 × 1048 erg s−1 corresponding to Mmax is remarkably close… 

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