How best to consider the structure and function of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus: Evidence from animal studies

@article{Winn2006HowBT,
  title={How best to consider the structure and function of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus: Evidence from animal studies},
  author={Philip Winn},
  journal={Journal of the Neurological Sciences},
  year={2006},
  volume={248},
  pages={234-250}
}
  • P. Winn
  • Published 25 October 2006
  • Biology
  • Journal of the Neurological Sciences

On the Relationships Between the Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus, Corticostriatal Architecture, and the Medial Reticular Formation

It is hypothesized that the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus has a pivotal position, bridging between higher order action selection mechanisms dealing with flexible learning of novel action patterns and lower level action selection processes that permit very fast responding to imperative stimuli.

Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus

Direct stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus can ameliorate some symptoms of Parkinson's disease, as demonstrated in both experimental animals and man.

Pedunculopontine nucleus

The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus is a neurochemically and functionally heterogeneous structure that occupies a strategic position in the dorsal tegmentum of the midbrain and upper pons and participates in control of locomotion and muscle tone in Parkinson disease and atypical parkinsonian syndromes.

Linking actions to outcomes : the role of the posterior pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in instrumental learning

Results support the view that PPTg performs a ‘first pass’ analysis on incoming sensory data and interfaces salient aspects of this with appropriate basal ganglia and brainstem circuitry, with glutamatergic pPPTg projections sending an essential signal and cholinergic projections performing as part of a wider modulatory system.

The Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus as a Motor and Cognitive Interface between the Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia

It is suggested that the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus may also act as an interface device between the basal ganglia and cerebellum, and part of the therapeutic effect of PPTg deep brain stimulation to relieve gait freezing and postural instability in advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients might also involve modulation of the Cerebellum.

Pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei contain distinct populations of cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the rat

Over 95% of all PPTg/LDTg cholinergic neurons lack transcripts encoding either vGluT2 mRNA or GAD mRNA, which means co‐release of acetylcholine with either glutamate or GABA is unlikely to be a major factor in the interactions between acetyl choline, glutamate and GABA at the postsynaptic site.

Participation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in arousal-demanding functions

Data is discussed that suggest that in addition to operating via thalamic nuclei, the PPTg may also operate by activating cerebellaruclei, especially the dentate nucleus, in such a way that an intense and diffuse activation of the cerebral cortex may be achieved.
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References

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On the relationships between the striatum and the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus.

The hypothesis is that the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus is one critical site through which limbic information concerned with motivation, reinforcement, and the construction of novel associations can gain access to a stream of motor outflow coming from the caudate-putamen and directed toward pontomedullary systems without reference back to the cerebral cortex.

The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus: Where the striatum meets the reticular formation

Neuronal loss in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in Parkinson disease and in progressive supranuclear palsy.

It is reported that the hindbrain NPP Ch5 cell group, thought to innervate many nuclei of the extrapyramidal motor system, the superior colliculus, and the substantia innominata, undergoes degeneration in idiopathic Parkinson disease and in the parkinsonian syndrome of progressive supranuclear palsy.

Pedunculopontine nucleus in the squirrel monkey: Distribution of cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons in the mesopontine tegmentum with evidence for the presence of glutamate in cholinergic neurons

Cholinergic neurons remain largely segregated from monoaminergic neurons throughout the mesopontine tegmentum and PPN contains cholinergic and glutamatergic neurons as well as neurons coexpressing ChAT and Glutamate in primates.

Human reticular formation: Cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei and some cytochemical comparisons to forebrain cholinergic neurons

The lack of confinement within specifiable cytoarchitectonic boundaries and the transmitter heterogeneity justified the transmitter‐specific Ch5 and Ch6 nomenclature for these two groups of cholinergic neurons.

Cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons in the rat pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus

The results demonstrate that cells in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus are differentiated with regard to their axosomatic synaptic inputs which may influence their firing properties, and support previous suggestions that nigral afferents may be preferentially distributed to a subpopulation of the ped unculpontine neurons.
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