How are habits formed: Modelling habit formation in the real world

@article{Lally2010HowAH,
  title={How are habits formed: Modelling habit formation in the real world},
  author={Phillippa Lally and Cornelia H.M. van Jaarsveld and Henry W. W. Potts and Jane Wardle},
  journal={European Journal of Social Psychology},
  year={2010},
  volume={40},
  pages={998-1009}
}
To investigate the process of habit formation in everyday life, 96 volunteers chose an eating, drinking or activity behaviour to carry out daily in the same context (for example 'after breakfast') for 12 weeks. They completed the self-report habit index (SRHI) each day and recorded whether they carried out the behaviour. The majority (82) of participants provided sufficient data for analysis, and increases in automaticity (calculated with a sub-set of SRHI items) were examined over the study… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

How to Form Good Habits? A Longitudinal Field Study on the Role of Self-Control in Habit Formation

TLDR
Track how self-control capacity affects the development of good habits in real life over a period of 90 days indicated that habit formation increased substantially over the course of three months, especially for participants who consistently performed the desired behavior during this time.

The strength of habit

TLDR
It is argued that habit should not be equated with the concept of an impulse (Gardner, 2015) or with the trait characteristic of impulsivity (e.g., Patton, Stanford, & Barratt, 1995; Stanford, Mathias, Dougherty, Lake, Anderson, & Patton, 2009, see also Strack & Deutsch, 2004 for an alternative use of the term).

Habit formation following routine-based versus time-based cue planning: A randomized controlled trial.

TLDR
Group-level analyses revealed that both routine-based and time-based cue planning led to increases in automaticity and plan enactment, but no between-condition differences were found.

Experimental test of a planning intervention for forming a ‘higher order’ health-habit

TLDR
It may be possible for individuals to form ‘higher-order’ habits, which may be particularly important in health contexts, in which many target behaviours are complex and can be seen as higher-order.

Habit, identity, and repetitive action: a prospective study of binge-drinking in UK students.

TLDR
Identity and habit are conceptually discrete and impact differently on binge-drinking, such that strong intenders were more likely to binge-Drink where they also had strong habits.

Falling into a routine: from habits to situated practices.

TLDR
It is argued that attending to the diverse range of contextual elements bracketed off from interventions designed to be tested in trials, and the idea that continuity might emerge from variation, demands a reconceptualisation of the concept of habit adopted within many areas of current health psychology.

Investigating the balance between goal-directed and habitual control in experimental and real-life settings

TLDR
A novel key-cover procedure is developed that controls for the amount of repetition and motivation within a naturalistic setting that may reflect that flexible behavioral adjustment requires more attention in people with a relatively weak goal-directed system.

An intervention designed to investigate habit formation in a novel health behaviour

TLDR
It was found that any intervention seems to be effective in forming a habit and changing behaviour, and intention, habit and behaviour were the most important predictors of behaviour change and habit formation maintenance.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 27 REFERENCES

Beyond frequency: habit as mental construct.

  • B. Verplanken
  • Psychology
    The British journal of social psychology
  • 2006
TLDR
Three studies demonstrate that habit should not be equated with frequency of occurrence, but rather should be considered as a mental construct involving features of automaticity, such as lack of awareness, difficulty to control and mental efficiency.

Does habit strength moderate the intention–behaviour relationship in the Theory of Planned Behaviour? The case of fruit consumption

The present study examined if habit strength moderated the influence of intention on fruit consumption in a Dutch adult sample (N = 521, 46.3% males, mean age = 34.50, SD = 10.87), using the

A new look at habits and the habit-goal interface.

TLDR
The present model outlines the mechanisms underlying habitual control of responding and the ways in which habits interface with goals, and the implications of the model for habit change, especially for the self-regulation of habit cuing.

Reflections on past behavior: A self-report index of habit strength

We argue that habit is a psychological construct, rather than simply past behavioral frequency. In 4 studies, a 12-item index of habit strength (the Self-Report Habit Index, SRHI) was developed on

Residual Effects of Past on Later Behavior: Habituation and Reasoned Action Perspectives

The frequency with which a behavior has been performed in the past is found to account for variance in later behavior independent of intentions. This often taken as evidence for habituation of

Predicting fruit consumption: cognitions, intention, and habits.

Can the theory of planned behavior predict the maintenance of physical activity?

  • C. Armitage
  • Psychology
    Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
  • 2005
TLDR
Perceived behavioral control was significantly predictive of intentions and actual behavior, stable exercise habits developed in the first 5 weeks of the study, and successful prior performance enhanced perceptions of behavioral control.

Habits in everyday life: thought, emotion, and action.

TLDR
Diary studies conducted in which participants provided hourly reports of their ongoing experiences showed that the self-regulatory benefits of habits were apparent in the lesser feelings of stress associated with habitual than nonhabitual behavior.

ATTITUDE VERSUS GENERAL HABIT -- ANTECEDENTS OF TRAVEL MODE CHOICE /

A model of travel mode choice is tested by means of a survey among 199 inhabitants of a village. Car choice behavior for a particular journey is predicted from the attitude toward choosing the car