# How an improved implementation of H2 self-shielding influences the formation of massive stars and black holes

@article{Hartwig2015HowAI,
title={How an improved implementation of H2 self-shielding influences the formation of massive stars and black holes},
author={Tilman Hartwig and Simon C. O. Glover and Ralf S. Klessen and Muhammad A. Latif and Marta Volonteri},
journal={Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
year={2015},
volume={452},
pages={1233-1244}
}
High redshift quasars at z>6 have masses up to ~$10^9$ M$_\odot$. One of the pathways to their formation includes direct collapse of gas, forming a supermassive star, precursor of the black hole seed. The conditions for direct collapse are more easily achievable in metal-free haloes, where atomic hydrogen cooling operates and molecular hydrogen (H2) formation is inhibited by a strong external UV flux. Above a certain value of UV flux (J_crit), the gas in a halo collapses isothermally at ~$10^4… ## Figures and Tables from this paper Simulating the formation of massive seed black holes in the early Universe – II. Impact of rate coefficient uncertainties We investigate how uncertainties in the chemical and cooling rate coefficients relevant for a metal-free gas influence our ability to determine the critical ultraviolet field strength required to Witnessing the birth of a supermassive protostar • Physics • 2016 The detection of z> 6 quasars reveals the existence of supermassive black holes of a few 10 9 M⊙. One of the potential pathways to explain their formation in the infant universe is the so-called Direct collapse to supermassive black hole seeds: the critical conditions for suppression of H2 cooling • Physics • 2019 Observations of high-redshift quasars imply the presence of supermassive black holes already at z~ 7.5. An appealing and promising pathway to their formation is the direct collapse scenario of a Enhanced direct collapse due to Lyman {\alpha} feedback • Physics • 2016 We assess the impact of trapped Lyman {\alpha} cooling radiation on the formation of direct collapse black holes (DCBHs). We apply a one-zone chemical and thermal evolution model, accounting for the The seeds of supermassive black holes and the role of local radiation and metal spreading • Physics Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia • 2019 Abstract We present cosmological hydrodynamical simulations including atomic and molecular non-equilibrium chemistry, multi-frequency radiative transfer (0.7–100 eV sampled over 150 frequency bins) The formation of direct collapse black holes under the influence of streaming velocities • Physics • 2017 We study the influence of a high baryonic streaming velocity on the formation of direct collapse black holes (DCBHs) with the help of cosmological simulations carried out using the moving mesh code On the number density of 'direct collapse' black hole seeds • Physics • 2016 Supermassive black holes (BHs) reside in the centre of most local galaxies, but they also power active galactic nuclei and quasars, detected up to z = 7. These quasars put constraints on early BH Radiation hydrodynamical simulations of the birth of intermediate-mass black holes in the first galaxies • Physics Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society • 2021 The leading contenders for the seeds of z > 6 quasars are direct-collapse black holes (DCBHs) forming in atomically cooled haloes at z ∼ 20. However, the Lyman–Werner (LW) UV background required to Cradles of the first stars: self-shielding, halo masses, and multiplicity • Physics • 2020 The formation of Population III (Pop III) stars is a critical step in the evolution of the early universe. To understand how these stars affected their metal-enriched descendants, the details of how, The natural emergence of the correlation between H2 and star formation rate surface densities in galaxy simulations • Physics • 2017 In this study, we present a suite of high-resolution numerical simulations of an isolated galaxy to test a sub-grid framework to consistently follow the formation and dissociation of H_2 with ## References SHOWING 1-10 OF 100 REFERENCES A UV flux constraint on the formation of direct collapse black holes • Physics • 2014 The ability of metal-free gas to cool by molecular hydrogen in primordial haloes is strongly associated with the strength of ultraviolet (UV) flux produced by the stellar populations in the first The suppression of direct collapse black hole formation by soft X-ray irradiation • Physics • 2015 The origin of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei is one of the major unsolved problems in astrophysics. One hypothesis is that they grew from >10^5 M_sun black holes that formed in The Direct Collapse of a Massive Black Hole Seed Under the Influence of an Anisotropic Lyman-Werner Source • Physics • 2014 The direct collapse model of supermassive black hole seed formation provides an attractive solution to the origin of the quasars now routinely observed at$z \gtrsim 6$. We use the adaptive mesh How realistic UV spectra and X-rays suppress the abundance of direct collapse black holes • Physics • 2015 Observations of high-redshift quasars at z > 6 indicate that they harbour supermassive black holes (SMBHs) of a billion solar masses. The direct collapse scenario has emerged as the most plausible Simulating the formation of massive seed black holes in the early Universe – II. Impact of rate coefficient uncertainties We investigate how uncertainties in the chemical and cooling rate coefficients relevant for a metal-free gas influence our ability to determine the critical ultraviolet field strength required to Feedback-regulated supermassive black hole seed formation • Physics • 2014 The nature of the seeds of high-redshift supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is a key question in cosmology. Direct collapse black holes (DCBH) that form in pristine, atomic-line cooling halos, Suppression of HD cooling in protogalactic gas clouds by Lyman–Werner radiation • Physics • 2011 It has been shown that HD molecules can form efficiently in metal-free gas collapsing into massive protogalactic haloes at high redshift. The resulting radiative cooling by HD can lower the gas Simulating the formation of massive seed black holes in the early Universe. 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Star formation in the first galaxies – I. Collapse delayed by Lyman–Werner radiation
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Supermassive black holes are not only common in the present-day galaxies, but billion solar masses black holes also powered z≥ 6 quasars. One efficient way to form such black holes is the collapse of