How a fungus escapes the water to grow into the air

@article{Wsten1999HowAF,
  title={How a fungus escapes the water to grow into the air},
  author={Han A. B. W{\"o}sten and M. A. van Wetter and Luis G Lugones and Henny C. Mei and Henk J. Busscher and Joseph G. H. Wessels},
  journal={Current Biology},
  year={1999},
  volume={9},
  pages={85-88}
}
Fungi are well known to the casual observer for producing water-repelling aerial moulds and elaborate fruiting bodies such as mushrooms and polypores. [...] Key Result The large drop in surface tension (from 72 to 24 mJ m-2) results from self-assembly of a secreted hydrophobin (SC3) into a stable amphipathic protein film at the water-air interface. Other, but not all, surface-active molecules (that is, other class I hydrophobins and streptofactin from Streptomyces tendae) can substitute for SC3 in the medium…Expand
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TLDR
The obtained results indicate that neither the SC3 hydrophobin nor the SC15 protein are principally necessary for S. commune to enter into the wood, to decay the wood or to affect the strength to the wood.
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TLDR
It is concluded that the study of water repellency (and soil ecology in general) could profit by applying some of the knowledge obtained from molecular/biochemical studies on hydrophobins to the soil environment.
The fungal hydrophobin RolA recruits polyesterase and laterally moves on hydrophobic surfaces
TLDR
Results suggest that RolA adsorbed to the hydrophobic surface of PBSA recruits CutL 1, resulting in condensation of CutL1 on the PBSA surface and consequent stimulation ofPBSA hydrolysis.
The pleiotropic functions of Intracellular hydrophobins in aerial hyphae and fungal spores.
TLDR
It is revealed that the rapid release of HFBs by aerial hyphae shortly prior to conidiation is associated with their intracellular accumulation in vacuoles and/or lipid-enriched organelles and this protein possibly controls spore dormancy and contributes to the water sensing mechanism required for the detection of germination conditions.
Intracellular accumulation and secretion of hydrophobin-enriched vesicles aid the rapid sporulation of molds
Abstract Fungi can rapidly produce large amounts of spores suitable for aerial dispersal. The hydrophobicity of spores is provided by the unique amphiphilic and superior surface-active proteins –
Self-assembly of hydrophobin proteins from the fungus Trichoderma reesei
Hydrophobins are small surface active proteins that are produced by filamentous fungi. The surface activity of hydrophobin proteins leads to the formation of a film at the air-water interface and
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Publisher Summary Hydrophobins were discovered while searching for genes expressed during emergent growth in Schizophyllum commune, and are a novel class of small secreted cysteine-rich proteins of
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TLDR
It is proposed that the hydrophobic rodlet layer on aerial hyphae arises by interfacial self-assembly of Sc3p hydrophobin monomers, involving noncovalent interactions only.
A surface active protein involved in aerial hyphae formation in the filamentous fungus Schizophillum commune restores the capacity of a bald mutant of the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor to erect aerial structures
TLDR
It is concluded that the production of SapB and streptofactin at the start of morphological differentiation contributes to the erection of aerial hyphae by decreasing the surface tension at the colony surface but that subsequent morphogenesis requires additional developmentally regulated events under the control of bald genes.
The fungal hydrophobin Sc3p self-assembles at the surface of aerial hyphae as a protein membrane constituting the hydrophobic rodlet layer.
TLDR
The Schizophyllum commune hydrophobin Sc3p is a small, hydrophobic, cysteine-rich protein involved in the formation of aerial hyphae that self-assembles at the wall/air interface into an SDS-insoluble protein membrane, at the aerial site very hydrophilic and with the appearance of a mosaic of 10 nm spaced parallel rodlets.
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TLDR
The properties of streptofactin suggest that it plays a structural role in aerial mycelium development and supports the erection of aerial hyphae by lowering the surface tension of water films enclosing the colonies.
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TLDR
Findings indicate that hydrophobins, in addition to forming hydrophobic wall coatings, play a role in adherence of fungal hyphae to hydrophilic surfaces.
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TLDR
It is reported that aerial hyphae formation by a newly identified bld mutant is restored by juxtaposition of the mutant near colonies of SapB-producing bacteria or by the application of the purified protein near mutant colonies, which implicate SapB in aerial mycelium formation and suggest that SapB is a morphogenetic protein that enables hyphal on the surface of colonies to grow into the air.
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TLDR
Using an S. commune mutant with a disrupted SC3 gene it was found that ABH3 can substitute for SC3 in inducing formation of aerial hyphae, suggesting a role ofABH3 in the emergence of aerial Hyphae and strands in A. bisporus.
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TLDR
The striking similarities between the physical properties and locations of accumulation of cryparin and cerato-ulmin in fungal fruiting structures suggest either conservation of structure or convergent evolution in function of these two proteins.
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TLDR
Adsorption of SC3p to hydrophobic surfaces is suggested to occur in bilayers, and the second layer is supposed to be less strongly adsorbed than the first layer and can be easily removed by washing.
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