How a century of ammonia synthesis changed the world

@article{Erisman2008HowAC,
  title={How a century of ammonia synthesis changed the world},
  author={Jan Willem Erisman and Mark A. Sutton and James N. Galloway and Zbigniew Klimont and Wilfried Winiwarter},
  journal={Nature Geoscience},
  year={2008},
  volume={1},
  pages={636-639}
}
On 13 October 1908, Fritz Haber filed his patent on the "synthesis of ammonia from its elements" for which he was later awarded the 1918 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. A hundred years on we live in a world transformed by and highly dependent upon Haber–Bosch nitrogen. 
A Brief History of Nitrogen
It has been 100 years since a German scientist named Fritz Haber came up with a large-scale way to convert more of the sea of nitrogen gas around us into a usable form1. Before then, how much food we
Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia: A Low Pressure, Low Temperature Approach
About half of the people on this planet exist because of the human mastery of nitrogen. 1 The earth’s soil and natural processes simply could not support seven billion people without modern chemistry
Optimizing the Conditions for Ammonia Production Using Absorption
Ammonia is made from hydrogen and nitrogen over a catalyst operating at high temperature and pressure. More ammonia can be produced by changing how the ammonia synthesized is separated, i.e., by re...
Integrated Ammonia Synthesis and Separation
Ammonia is made by combining nitrogen and hydrogen at high pressure. In the conventional process on the left, these gases are partially reacted at about 400 °C, and ammonia is recovered by condensa...
Catalyst-Free Hydrogen Synthesis from Liquid Ethanol: An ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Study
Hydrogen is the simplest, oldest, and most widespread molecule in nature. Nevertheless, the vast majority of the hydrogen industrial production stems from steam reforming of methane performed at hi...
Theoretical Screening of Single Atoms Supported on Two-Dimensional Nb2CN2 for Nitrogen Fixation
Massively converting nitrogen gas to ammonia is a key process in modern agricultural and industrial fields. The conventional Haber–Bosch process for NH3 production has to be carried out under extre...
A Molecular-Level Mechanism of the Biological N2 Fixation
We present a detailed molecular-level mechanism for the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. The mechanism is based on a series of electronic structure calculations and provides
Theoretical Investigation of Single and Double Transition Metals Anchored on Graphyne Monolayer for Nitrogen Reduction Reaction
In contrast to the energy-extensive Haber–Bosch process, green production of ammonia (NH3) at ambient conditions remains as one of the main goals of the 21st century. In this work, we systematicall...
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 30 REFERENCES
Fritz Haber : chemist, Nobel Laureate, German, Jew
This long-awaited biography of Fritz Haber, now abridged by the author and translated into English, illuminates the life of one of the most gifted yet controversial figures of the 20th century. Haber
An Earth-system perspective of the global nitrogen cycle
With humans having an increasing impact on the planet, the interactions between the nitrogen cycle, the carbon cycle and climate are expected to become an increasingly important determinant of the
Enriching the Earth: Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the Transformation of World Food Production
Review: Enriching the Earth: Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the Transformation of World Food Production By Vaclav Smil Reviewed by Rosemary A. Streatfeild Washington State University, USA Vaclav Smil.
Transformation of the Nitrogen Cycle: Recent Trends, Questions, and Potential Solutions
TLDR
Optimizing the need for a key human resource while minimizing its negative consequences requires an integrated interdisciplinary approach and the development of strategies to decrease nitrogen-containing waste.
Reduced nitrogen in ecology and the environment.
The Nitrogen Cascade
TLDR
The only way to eliminate Nr accumulation and stop the cascade is to convert Nr back to nonreactive N2, which leads to lag times in the continuation of the cascade.
Nitrogen and Food Production: Proteins for Human Diets
TLDR
The future global use of N fertilizers can be moderated not just by better agronomic practices but also by higher feeding efficiencies and by gradual changes of prevailing diets, and it could be possible to supply adequate nutrition to the world's growing population without any massive increases of N inputs.
Nitrogen Cycles: Past, Present, and Future
This paper contrasts the natural and anthropogenic controls on the conversion of unreactive N2 to more reactive forms of nitrogen (Nr). A variety of data sets are used to construct global N budgets
N 2 O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels
The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O),
Biofuels: is the cure worse than the disease?
TLDR
Whether biofuels offer a cure that is worse than the disease they seek to heal is asked and salient facts and figures are presented to shed light on these controversial issues.
...
...