How Zwicky already ruled out modified gravity theories without dark matter

  title={How Zwicky already ruled out modified gravity theories without dark matter},
  author={Theo M. Nieuwenhuizen},
  journal={arXiv: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics},
  • T. Nieuwenhuizen
  • Published 2016
  • Physics
  • arXiv: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics
Various theories, such as MOND, MOG, Emergent Gravity and $f(R)$ theories avoid dark matter by assuming a change in General Relativity and/or in Newton's law. Galactic rotation curves are typically described well. Here the application to galaxy clusters is considered, focussed on the good lensing and X-ray data for A1689. As a start, the no-dark-matter case is confirmed to work badly: the need for dark matter starts near the cluster centre, where Newton's law is still supposed to be valid. This… Expand

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