How Women Have Fared as Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Since the Passage of Title IX

  title={How Women Have Fared as Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Since the Passage of Title IX},
  author={Warren A. Whisenant},
  journal={Sex Roles},
The purpose of this study was to assess how well women have fared under Title IX at the interscholastic level, not as participants or coaches, but beyond the playing field into the offices of the athletic director. Demographic data were collected pertaining to the gender of members who belong to state high school athletic director associations identified by the National Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Association (NIAAA). An analysis of the gender composition of those state… 

Systemic Barriers in Athletic Administration: An Analysis of Job Descriptions for Interscholastic Athletic Directors

The purpose of this study was to determine if the job descriptions for interscholastic athletic directors (AD) used by school districts contained some form of gender bias that might deny women the

The Underrepresentation of women in interscholastic sport leadership: A qualitative study on the effects of role incongruity

The purpose of this study was to investigate the underrepresentation of women in interscholastic sport leadership positions by analyzing perceptions of state association administrators and athletic

How do factors preventing the career advancement of women relate to the career advancement of women in NCAA Division III top-level athletic administration?

The underrepresentation of females is not exclusive to only one part of business, but rather, this idea has been seen throughout athletic administration for many years (Acosta & Carpenter 1998,

Intentions to Be an Athletic Director

The aim of this study was to evaluate senior athletic administrators’ expectations and intentions of becoming National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletic directors (ADs) and

Sustaining Male Dominance in Interscholastic Athletics: A Case of Homologous Reproduction…or Not?

To establish if male hegemony continued to exist in high school athletics within the USA and to determine the extent that homologous reproduction (hiring people of the same gender) might be a

Title IX Compliance in NCAA Athletic Departments: Perceptions of Senior Woman Administrators

Significant differences between Likert-scale items of agreement/disagreement were found among the following SWA demographics: marital status, NCAA Division, years of experience, and reporting structure.

Institutionalized Barriers and Supports of Female Athletic Directors: A Multilevel Perspective

Despite an increase in participation rates among girls and women across all levels of sport, women are still underrepresented in leadership positions. Less than 10% of National Collegiate Athletic

Women Leaders in Sport

The increasing sport participation among girls and women has been well documented. According to the National Federation of State High School Association’s (NFHS) Athletic Participation Survey, girls’

Who's Calling the Shots? Women Coaches in Division I Women's Sports*

Objective. During the past 30 years, women have become an increasingly small proportion of coaches of women's sports. We test several explanations for why some institutions have women coaches and

Female Head Athletic Trainers in NCAA Division I (IA Football) Athletics: How They Made It to the Top.

The profession of athletic training has opened its doors to women, who now slightly outnumber men in the profession (Shingles, 2001; WATC, 1997, 2005). Unfortunately, this representation does not



Women in Intercollegiate Sport a Longitudinal Study Twenty Three Year Update 1977-2000

Background The architecture of sports for females in the United States has changed considerably since the enactment of Title IX in 1972 which prohibited sex discrimination in educational programs

Success and Gender: Determining the Rate of Advancement for Intercollegiate Athletic Directors

Since the demise of the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW), female sport administrators have continued their struggle to reestablish their place as athletic directors. The

An Examination of the Reduction in the Number of Female Interscholastic Coaches.

Abstract A substantial reduction in the number of female interscholastic coaches has been reported since 1972. Based on initial work and drawing from the discipline of sociology, this study was

“Good Old Boys” and “Good Old Girls” Clubs: Myth or Reality?

Two reasons given for the dramatic decline in the percentage of women coaches since the passage of Title IX have been the effectiveness of the “good old boys” network and the lack or ineffectiveness

Perceptions of Female and Male Managers in the 1990s: Plus ça change . . .

Despite an increase in the number of womenmanagers, women frequently have difficulty advancing toupper levels of management. Researchers such as V . E.Schein [(1973), “The Relationship Between

Power and ideology in American sport: A critical perspective

This popular, widely acclaimed analysis of sport in America is now completely updated, with expanded treatment of contemporary issues. "Power and Ideology in American Sport, Second Edition" addresses

Think manager—think male: A global phenomenon?

The relationship between sex role stereotypes and characteristics perceived as necessary for management success was examined among 361 male and 228 female management students in Japan and the

Perceptions of Organizational Culture and Women's Advancement in Organizations: A Cross-Cultural Examination

This study is a cross-cultural examination of the relationship between organizational culture and women's advancement to management in organizations. The source of data for this study was the Global

Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control

  • A. Bandura
  • Psychology
    Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy
  • 1999
Albert Bandura and the Exercise of Self-Efficacy Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control Albert Bandura. New York: W. H. Freeman ( 1997, 604 pp., $46.00 (hardcover). Enter the term

Human Resource Management: A Strategic Approach

PART I. THE STRATEGIC APPROACH. 1. The Strategic Approach to Human Resource Management. 2. Formulating a Corporate and Human Resource Strategy. 3. The External and Global Environment for Human