How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis

  title={How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis},
  author={Hadas Michael Mandel and Hadas Michael Shalev},
  journal={Social Forces},
  pages={1873 - 1911}
We assess the impact of the welfare state on cross-national variation in the gender wage gap. Earnings inequality between men and women is conceptualized as resulting from their different locations in the class hierarchy, combined with the severity of wage differentials between and within classes. This decomposition contributes to identifying the relevant dimensions of welfare states and testing their impact on women’s relative earnings. Our empirical analysis is based on income and occupation… Expand

Tables from this paper

Winners and losers: The consequences of welfare state policies for gender wage inequality
Cross-national studies of the impact of welfare states on gender inequality tend to overlook socioeconomic divisions among women. This paper challenges the implicit assumption that welfare statesExpand
The Gender Wage Gap in the United States and Cross Nationally
Scholarship in sociology and economics has long explored the gender wage gap. Recent research suggests that these inequalities are indicative of important differences not only between men and women,Expand
Dynamics of Claims Making and Gender Wage Gaps in the United States and Norway
Abstract:This paper compares claims making and gender wage gaps in the United States and Norway, and asks how public sector employment moderates the association between gender segregation and theExpand
The role of parenthood in shaping the gender wage gap - A comparative analysis of 26 European countries.
It is found that irrespective of cultural norms and policies, fathers receive a wage premium, which increases the gender gap, and motherhood gaps vary across countries. Expand
State liberalism, female supervisors, and the gender wage gap.
This study pooled the 1997 and 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce surveys to estimate hierarchical models of reporting to a female supervisor and wages, with theoretically important predictors at the individual level, and at the state of residence. Expand
The Impact of Parenthood on the Gender Wage Gap – a Comparative Analysis of 26 European Countries
We use cross-national data on 26 EU countries to assess how much children and the responsibilities related to them contribute to the gender wage gap, and how institutional elements - especiallyExpand
The Impact of Parenthood on the Gender Wage Gap – a Comparative Analysis of European Countries and Family Policies
We use cross-national data to assess how much children and the responsibilities related to them contribute to the gender wage gap, and how family policies affect this relationship. Our analysis isExpand
Understanding Gender Economic Inequality Across Welfare Regimes
The process of “farewell to maternalism” (Orloff, 2006) has taken diverse forms in different societies over the last few decades. With the massive entry of women into the labor market, significantExpand
Are Children Driving the Gender Wage Gap?
The paper examines how much children and responsibilities related with them contribute towards the divergence of men’s and women’s wages, and consequently, to the formation of the gender wage gap. ToExpand
When the opportunity knocks: large structural shocks and gender wage gaps
Undergoing a large structural shock, labor markets may become less inclusive. We test for this thesis analyzing the behavior of adjusted gender wage gaps in a wide selection of transition countries.Expand


Wage Structure and Gender Earnings Differentials: an International Comparison
Using microdata to analyze the gender pay gap in ten industrialized nations, the authors focus on the role of wage structure--the prices of labor market skills in influencing the gender gap. TheyExpand
Family Policies, Wage Structures, and Gender Gaps: Sources of Earnings Inequality in 20 Countries
This study uncovers an unexpected effect of family-friendly policies on women's economic attainments. Using hierarchical linear models, the analysis combines individual-level data (obtained from theExpand
Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap
Using microdata for 22 countries over the 1985–94 period, we find that more compressed male wage structures and lower female net supply are both associated with a lower gender pay gap, with anExpand
Gender Equality in the Labor Market: Women's Employment and Earnings
This chapter presents a cross-national portrait of gender equality in the labor market in the early 1990s, based on Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) data from fifteen countries. Cross-countryExpand
Payment structures and gender pay differentials: some societel effects
Comparative studies of Women’s labour market position usually focus on patterns of gender segregation, considered to be the foundation of gender discrimination. Few studies trace the link betweenExpand
A Welfare State Paradox: State Interventions and Women’s Employment Opportunities in 22 Countries1
This study explores the role played by the welfare state in affecting women’s labor force participation and occupational achievement. Using data from 22 industrialized countries, the authors examineExpand
Gender, the Welfare State, and Public Employment: A Comparative Study of Seven Industrialized Countries
This paper explores the influence of government employment on the gender gap in earnings in seven countries, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS). The size of the public sector andExpand
A Cross-National Comparison of the Gender Gap in Income
This article examines national labor-market samples from two "dualist" countries (the United States and Canada) and two "corporatist" countries (Norway and Sweden). Labor-market location is lessExpand
The Scandinavian Welfare State Model: The Impact of the Public Sector on Segregation and Gender Equality
Comparative studies of sex segregation indicate that the levels in the Scandinavian countries are high, especially in Norway. Observers tend to link this to various aspects of the social democraticExpand
Gender Bias in Skills and Social Policies: The Varieties of Capitalism Perspective on Sex Segregation
This article develops a novel skilled-based theory to explain patterns of occupational segregation by gender in advanced industrial societies. This new approach brings together insights from twoExpand