How Warm Was the Medieval Warm Period?

  title={How Warm Was the Medieval Warm Period?},
  author={Thomas J. Crowley and Thomas S. Lowery},
Abstract A frequent conclusion based on study of individual records from the so-called Medieval Warm Period (∼1000-1300 A.D.) is that the present warmth of the 20 th century is not unusual and therefore cannot be taken as an indication of forced climate change from greenhouse gas emissions. This conclusion is not supported by published composites of Northern Hemisphere climate change, but the conclusions of such syntheses are often either ignored or challenged. In this paper, we revisit the… 
Extensive glaciers in northwest North America during Medieval time
The Medieval Warm Period is an interval of purportedly warm climate during the early part of the past millennium. The duration, areal extent, and even existence of the Medieval Warm Period have been
Evidence for a ‘Medieval Warm Period’ in a 1,100 year tree‐ring reconstruction of past austral summer temperatures in New Zealand
[1] The occurrence of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) in the Southern Hemisphere is uncertain because of the paucity of well-dated, high-resolution paleo-temperature records covering the past 1,000
The Medieval Climate Anomaly in South America
Abstract The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) is a climatic perturbation with a core period of 1000-1200 AD that is well-recognized in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). Its existence in the Southern
Medieval climate warming and aridity as indicated by multiproxy evidence from the Kola Peninsula , Russia
Data obtained from the low-elevation Khibiny Mountains (ca. 67–68jN; 33–34jE) on the Kola Peninsula, northwest Russia, indicate a period of exceptionally warm and dry conditions commenced at ca. AD
Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Climate in Medieval Times Revisited
Developing accurate reconstructions of past climate regimes and enhancing our understanding of the causal factors that may have contributed to their occurrence is important for a number of reasons;
Hydroclimate in Africa during the Medieval Climate Anomaly
The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) is a recognized period of distinct pre-industrial climate change, with a core period of 1000–1200 CE. The field of palaeoclimatology has made major progress over
Summer Climate Variability during the Past 1200 Years in Central Scandinavia – A Tree-Ring Perspective
To set the current 20 century warming in a long-term context, significant efforts have been made to reconstruct hemispheric-to-global temperatures beyond the instrumental period. Tree-rings, which
The Climate of the Last Millennium
We are living in unusual times. Twentieth century climate was dominated by near universal warming with almost all parts of the globe experiencing temperatures at the end of the century that were
A new reconstruction of temperature variability in the extra‐tropical northern hemisphere during the last two millennia
Abstract. A new temperature reconstruction with decadal resolution, covering the last two millennia, is presented for the extratropical Northern Hemisphere (90–30°N), utilizing many
Multi-scale temperature variations and their regional differences in China during the Medieval Climate Anomaly
The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, AD950-1250) is the most recent warm period lasting for several hundred years and is regarded as a reference scenario when studying the impact of and adaptation to