How The Timing of Grade Retention Affects Outcomes: Identification and Estimation of Time-Varying Treatment Effects.

@article{Fruehwirth2016HowTT,
  title={How The Timing of Grade Retention Affects Outcomes: Identification and Estimation of Time-Varying Treatment Effects.},
  author={Jane Cooley Fruehwirth and Salvador M{\'a}rmol Navarro and Yuya Takahashi},
  journal={Journal of labor economics},
  year={2016},
  volume={34 4},
  pages={
          979-1021
        }
}
In many countries, grade retention is viewed as a useful tool for helping students who fall behind in their achievement. We show how the effect of grade retention varies by abilities, by timing of retention and as time since retention elapses. While existing studies of grade retention also recognize the importance of studying variation by abilities and timing, the existing methods are not well-equipped to deal with the possibility that students retained at different grades differ in… CONTINUE READING

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