How T cells go rogue in the absence of Roquins.

@article{Akef2018HowTC,
  title={How T cells go rogue in the absence of Roquins.},
  author={Abdalla Akef and Stefan A. Muljo},
  journal={Non-coding RNA investigation},
  year={2018},
  volume={2}
}
Roquin-1 and Roquin-2 are RNA-binding proteins essential for modulating T cell activity. Indeed, Roquin dysfunction has been linked to autoimmunity in mice. Essig and colleagues (2017) determine their functions in Foxp3+ T regulatory cells and uncover novel mechanisms of Roquin-mediated regulation of its target mRNAs (1). 

Figures from this paper

How T cells go rogue in the absence of Roquins.

TLDR
Roquin-1 and Roquin-2 are RNA-binding proteins essential for modulating T cell activity and their functions in Foxp3+ T regulatory cells are determined and novel mechanisms of Roquinmediated regulation of its target mRNAs are uncovered.

References

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Loss of Roquin induces early death and immune deregulation but not autoimmunity

Deletion of Roquin in T or B cells, or in the entire hematopoietic system of mice, alters immune homeostasis but does not result in autoimmunity.

Roquin represses autoimmunity by limiting inducible T-cell co-stimulator messenger RNA

TLDR
A newly discovered pathway that prevents autoimmunity by limiting the levels on T lymphocytes of a co-stimulatory receptor, the inducible T-cell co- Stimulator (ICOS), is defined and the therapeutic potential of partially antagonising the ICOS pathway is highlighted.

Structural basis for RNA recognition in roquin-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation

TLDR
It is shown that the N-terminal ROQ domain from mouse roquin adopts an extended winged-helix fold, which is sufficient for binding to the constitutive decay element (CDE) in the Tnf 3′ UTR.

Attenuation of AMPK signaling by ROQUIN promotes T follicular helper cell formation

TLDR
It is reported that ROQUIN has a paradoxical function on Tfh differentiation mediated by its RING domain: mice with a T cell-specific deletion of the ROQ domain have unchanged Th1, Th2, Th17, and Tregs during a T-dependent response but show a profoundly defective antigen-specific T fh compartment.

Roquin recognizes a non-canonical hexaloop structure in the 3′-UTR of Ox40

TLDR
Crystal structures and NMR data show that the Roquin-1 ROQ domain recognizes hexaloops in the SELEX-derived ADE and in an ADE-like variant present in the Ox40 3′-UTR with identical binding modes.

Roquin binds microRNA-146a and Argonaute2 to regulate microRNA homeostasis

TLDR
It is shown that Roquin enhances Dicer-mediated processing of pre-miR-146a, a microRNA that targets Icos mRNA, and emerges as a protein that can bind Ago2, miRNAs and target mRNAs, to control homeostasis of both RNA species.

Roquin binds inducible costimulator mRNA and effectors of mRNA decay to induce microRNA-independent post-transcriptional repression

TLDR
In helper T cells, roquin localized to processing (P) bodies and downregulated ICOS expression, and showed an intrinsic preference for a previously unrecognized sequence in the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR).