How Old Is the Flower and the Fly?

@article{Labandeira1998HowOI,
  title={How Old Is the Flower and the Fly?},
  author={Conrad C. Labandeira},
  journal={Science},
  year={1998},
  volume={280},
  pages={57 - 59}
}
Pollination--insects and plants benefiting each other--is one of nature's more widespread examples of mutual adaptation. How did it evolve? In his commentary, Labandeira discusses research reported in the same issue by [Ren][1] on elongated mouthparts and other pollination-adapted features of Late Jurassic brachyceran flies. This new work adds substantially to our understanding of the lineages of these insects and also the evolution of angiosperms, the most common form of seed plant. [1… 

Generalist Pollen-Feeding Beetles during the Mid-Cretaceous

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  • Environmental Science
    Arthropod-Plant Interactions
  • 2015
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  • S. Sakai
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Journal of Plant Research
  • 2002
Abstract In this paper, I review pollination systems in which plants provide breeding sites as a reward for pollination. I divide the pollinators into three groups based upon ovipositing sites and

Cycads: their evolution, toxins, herbivores and insect pollinators

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The Pollination of Mid Mesozoic Seed Plants and the Early History of Long-proboscid Insects1,2,3

Evidence for pollination includes the entomophilous structure and size of pollen found on insect and plant contact surfaces and in insect guts, nutritional levels of modern pollination drop fluids similar to angiosperm nectar for supporting metabolically high activity levels of aerially active insects, and plant-host outcrossing.

Convergent evolution and adaptive radiation of beetle-pollinated angiosperms

  • P. Bernhardt
  • Environmental Science
    Plant Systematics and Evolution
  • 2004
The floras of Australia and western North America suggest that mutualistic interactions between beetles and flowers has been a continuous and labile trend in angiosperms with novel interactions evolving through the Tertiary.
...

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