How NP got a new definition: a survey of probabilistically checkable proofs

@article{Arora2002HowNG,
  title={How NP got a new definition: a survey of probabilistically checkable proofs},
  author={Sanjeev Arora},
  journal={CoRR},
  year={2002},
  volume={cs.CC/0304038}
}
We survey a collective achievement of a group of researchers: the PCP Theorems. They give new definitions of the class NP, and imply that computing approximate solutions to many NP-hard problems is itself NP-hard. Techniques developed to prove them have had many other consequences. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 68Q10, 68Q15, 68Q17, 68Q25. 

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