How Low Can They Go?: Oscillator Phase Noise Model, Theoretical, Experimental Validation, and Phase Noise Measurements

  title={How Low Can They Go?: Oscillator Phase Noise Model, Theoretical, Experimental Validation, and Phase Noise Measurements},
  author={Ajay K. Poddar and Ulrich L. Rohde and Anisha M. Apte},
  journal={IEEE Microwave Magazine},
Noise is associated with all the components of the oscillator circuit; however, the major contribution of the noise in an oscillator is from the active device, which introduces amplitude modulation (AM) and phase modulation (PM) noise. The conventional wisdom is to ignore AM component of the noise because the gain limiting effects of the active device operating under saturation, allowing only little variation in the output amplitude due to the noise in comparison to PM noise component, which… 
Cross-spectrum measurement of thermal-noise limited oscillators.
The newly discovered effect of anti-correlated thermal noise that originates from the common-mode power divider (splitter), an essential component in a cross-spectrum noise measurement system is discussed.
Nonlinear Noise Modeling: Using Nonlinear Circuit Simulators to Simulate Noise in the Nonlinear Domain
Noise is a random signal, a perturbation of dc bias and RF signals. It is usually necessary that digital electronics provide a low bit error rate or error vector magnitude to guarantee the reliable
Prediction, simulation, and verification of the phase noise in 80-MHz low-phase-noise crystal oscillators
The measured results show that thephase noise predicted after selecting reasonable parameters for the Leeson model and the ADS simulation curve of the phase noise obtained by using the nonlinear transistor model are both close to the actual measured result.
Validity of cross-spectrum PN measurement
This paper reports the anomaly of instruments that uses cross-spectrum method for the measurement of oscillator phase noise. Although, cross-spectrum techniques facilitate high sensitivity by
Phase noise measurements with a cryogenic power-splitter to minimize the cross-spectral collapse effect.
An accurate measurement of the phase noise of a thermally limited electronic oscillator operating at room temperature (300 K) without significant CSC bias is reported.
Noise analysis , then and today
Noise analysis of autonomous circuits (oscillators) was a dream since many years. The first and linear approach has to be credited to David Leeson, who took a linear low pass equivalent circuit and
Reviews of leeson model of oscillator phase noise
Through theoretical deduction, two new explanations of Leeson model are presented: the corner frequency of high Q oscillators in the phase noise curve should be the frequency at the intersection of
PM noise measurement at W-band
  • A. Hati, C. Nelson, D. Howe
  • Physics, Engineering
    IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
  • 2014
An enhanced-performance frequency synthesizer that operates in the 92 to 96 GHz range is discussed, achieving 5 to 10 dB improvement in the PM noise at 96 GHz compared with the previously designed synthesizer.
Phase Noise Measurement of RF Signals by Photonic Time Delay and Digital Phase Demodulation
A simple and high-sensitivity frequency–discriminator-based phase noise measurement system using photonic time delay and digital phase demodulation is comprehensively investigated and experimentally
The pursuit for low cost and low phase noise synthesized signal sources: Theory & optimization
  • A. Poddar, U. Rohde
  • Physics
    2014 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (FCS)
  • 2014
The performance of high frequency synthesizers is often tied to a lower-frequency reference oscillator, such as an oven-controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO), and enormous effort is often required to


A general theory of phase noise in electrical oscillators
A general model is introduced which is capable of making accurate, quantitative predictions about the phase noise of different types of electrical oscillators by acknowledging the true periodically
Phase noise and timing jitter in oscillators
Phase noise is a topic of theoretical and practical interest in electronic circuits, as well as in other fields such as optics. Although progress has been made in understanding the phenomenon, there
Oscillator phase noise: a tutorial
The time-varying phase noise model presented in this tutorial identifies the importance of symmetry in suppressing the upconversion of 1/f noise into close-in phase noise, and provides an explicit appreciation of cyclostationary effects and AM-PM conversion.
Investigation of phase noise of ring oscillators with time-varying current and noise sources by time-scaling thermal noise
  • B. Leung, D. McLeish
  • Physics, Computer Science
    IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
  • 2004
Close-form solutions that relate the probability distribution and power-spectral density of the phase noise to circuit parameters have been obtained and predicts that for a given oscillation frequency, phase noise roughly decreases as the cube of the delay cell charging current value at threshold crossing.
Cross-correlation phase noise measurements
  • W. F. Walls
  • Physics
    Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE Frequency Control Symposium
  • 1992
The noise floor of a typical two channel phase noise measurement system is set by the phase detector and amplifiers that follow the detector. If the phase noise of two oscillators is measured using
Phase noise in coupled oscillators: theory and experiment
Phase noise in mutually synchronized oscillator systems is analyzed for arbitrary coupling and injection-locking topologies, neglecting amplitude noise, and amplitude modulation (AM) to phase
Analysis of Near-Carrier Phase-Noise Spectrum in Free-Running Oscillators in the Presence of White and Colored Noise Sources
This paper presents the stochastic characterization of the phase-noise spectrum of free-running oscillators in the envelope domain. The flicker-noise sources are modeled as an infinite summation of
The Design of Low Noise Oscillators
1. Introduction. 2. Frequency Instability Fundamentals. 3. Review of Existing Models. 4. Time-Variant Phase Noise Model. 5. Jitter and Phase Noise in Ring Oscillators. 6. Phase Noise in Differential
Phase Noise in Signal Sources
This book contains a thorough treatment of phase noise, its relationship to thermal noise and associated subjects such as frequency stability. The design of low phase noise signal sources, including
A study of phase noise in CMOS oscillators
This paper presents a study of phase noise in two inductorless CMOS oscillators. First-order analysis of a linear oscillatory system leads to a noise shaping function and a new definition of Q. A