How Linguistic and Cultural Forces Shape Conceptions of Time: English and Mandarin Time in 3D

  title={How Linguistic and Cultural Forces Shape Conceptions of Time: English and Mandarin Time in 3D},
  author={Orly Fuhrman and Kelly McCormick and Eva Chen and Heidi Jiang and Dingfang Shu and Shuaimei Mao and Lera Boroditsky},
  journal={Cognitive science},
  volume={35 7},
In this paper we examine how English and Mandarin speakers think about time, and we test how the patterns of thinking in the two groups relate to patterns in linguistic and cultural experience. In Mandarin, vertical spatial metaphors are used more frequently to talk about time than they are in English; English relies primarily on horizontal terms. We present results from two tasks comparing English and Mandarin speakers' temporal reasoning. The tasks measure how people spatialize time in three… 

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