How Does the Brain Organize Memories?

  title={How Does the Brain Organize Memories?},
  author={Howard Eichenbaum},
  pages={330 - 332}
[ Howard Eichenbaum ][1] In this issue of Science , [ Vargha-Khadem et al .][2] report that three patients who had very specific loss of their hippocampi within the first few years of life showed a severe loss of episodic memory (our record of personal events), but that their semantic memory (our lifetime accumulation of universal factual knowledge) was intact. In his Perspective, Eichenbaum explains what these results mean for the classification of different types of memory and their… 

Episodic and declarative memory: Role of the hippocampus

A realignment of organization of memory is suggested such that declarative memory is defined in terms of features and properties that are common to both episodic and semantic memory, which gives greater precision to the Vargha‐Khadem et al. study.

On the role of the hippocampus in the acquisition, long-term retention and semanticisation of memory

A coherent view of what makes a task hippocampallydependent at acquisition and how this relates to its long-term fate is formulated and conceptualising episodic and semantic memory as representing points on a continuum of memory types appears viable.

Emotional tagging of memory formation—in the search for neural mechanisms

Estimation of working memory in macaques for studying drugs for the treatment of cognitive disorders.

  • J. Buccafusco
  • Psychology, Biology
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD
  • 2008
These studies have provided information relevant to factors that limit the effectiveness of clinical trial design for compounds that potentially improve cognition, and examples are provided that underscore the possible idiosyncrasies of drug action in the pharmacology of cognition.

An Emotional Mediation Theory of Differential Age Effects in Episodic and Semantic Memories

An initial empirical examination of this emotional mediation theory is presented, using preexisting data that include indicators of age, chronic tendency to focus on negative emotional stimuli (neuroticism), and working memory performance.

Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach

The aim in this article is to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms.



Memory, amnesia, and the hippocampal system

A cognitive neuroscience theory of memory is offered that accounts for the nature of memory impairment exhibited in human amnesia and animal models of amnesia, that specifies the functional role played by the hippocampal system in memory, and that provides further understanding of the componential structure of memory.

Conservation of hippocampal memory function in rats and humans

Normal rats demonstrated two forms of flexible memory expression, transitivity, the ability to judge inferentially across stimulus pairs that share a common element, and symmetry, the able to associate paired elements presented in the reverse of training order, indicating that non-spatial declarative processing depends specifically on the hippocampus in animals as it does in humans.

The hippocampus and memory for orderly stimulus relations.

  • J. DusekH. Eichenbaum
  • Psychology, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1997
The view that the hippocampus mediates a general declarative memory capacity in animals, as it does in humans, is strongly supported.

Declarative memory: insights from cognitive neurobiology.

The basic properties of declarative memory in human beings can be viewed as evolving from a capacity for organized memory representation and flexible memory expression in animals.

Integrating behavioral and physiological models of hippocampal function

Working to bridge between behavioral and physiological levels of analysis, it is hoped that a more complete understanding of hippocampal region function in memory across a wider range of behavioral paradigms is developed, elucidating how this functionality emerges from underlying physiological and anatomical substrates.

The structure and organization of memory.

The concept of brain systems, while not entirely free of problems itself, provides a more concrete and in the end a more satisfying basis for thinking about memory systems.

Hippocampal neurons in the monkey with activity related to the place in which a stimulus is shown

  • E. RollsY. Miyashita L. Bach
  • Biology, Psychology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1989
Not only is spatial information processed by the primate hippocampus, but it can be combined with information about which stimuli have been seen before, and the ability of the hippocampus to form such conjunctions may be an important property for its role in memory.

Long-term follow-up of a childhood amnesic syndrome

Dissociable properties of memory systems: differences in the flexibility of declarative and nondeclarative knowledge.

It is shown that declarative memory has different operating characteristics than nondeclarativememory and is available only in conditions that reinstantiated the conditions of training.