How Does God Play Dice ? (pre-)determinism at the Planck Scale

  • Gerard 't Hooft
  • Published 2001
In deterministic theories, one can start from a set of ontological states to formulate the dynamical laws, but these may not be directly observable. Observable are only equivalence classes of states, and these will span a basis of " beables " , to be promoted to an orthonormal basis of Hilbert Space. After transforming this basis to a more conventional… CONTINUE READING