How Do Scientists Respond to Anomalies? Different Strategies Used in Basic and Applied Science

  title={How Do Scientists Respond to Anomalies? Different Strategies Used in Basic and Applied Science},
  author={Susan Bell Trickett and J. Gregory Trafton and Christian D. Schunn},
  journal={Topics in cognitive science},
  volume={1 4},
We conducted two in vivo studies to explore how scientists respond to anomalies. Based on prior research, we identify three candidate strategies: mental simulation, mental manipulation of an image, and comparison between images. In Study 1, we compared experts in basic and applied domains (physics and meteorology). We found that the basic scientists used mental simulation to resolve an anomaly, whereas applied science practitioners mentally manipulated the image. In Study 2, we compared novice… CONTINUE READING


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conceptual simulation, pure spatial transformation, and comparison spatial transformation, and we Fig

General discussion We have identified three distinct, albeit related, problem-solving strategies used in scientific reasoning, particularly among scientists using complex visual displays of data
2. Mean number (with standard error bars) of conceptual simulations, spatial transformations, and comparison spatial transformations before and after each anomaly for expert and novice applied science practitioners. 726 S. B. Trickett, J. G. Trafton, C. D. Schunn ⁄Topics in Cognitive Science 1 • 2009

Connecting internal and external representations : Spatial transformations of scientific visualizations

J. G. Trafton, S. B. Trickett, F. E. Mintz
Foundations of Science • 2005

Mechanical reasoning by mental simulation

Trends in Cognitive Sciences • 2004

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