How Criminal System Racial Disparities May Translate into Health Disparities

  title={How Criminal System Racial Disparities May Translate into Health Disparities},
  author={Mikio Iguchi and James Bell and Rajeev Ramchand and Terry Fain},
  journal={Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved},
  pages={48 - 56}
Disadvantaged racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S. are strikingly over-represented in the juvenile justice and adult criminal justice systems. This paper briefly reviews the extent of over-representation attributable primarily to drug offenses and an earlier conceptual framework introduced by Iguchi and colleagues showing how the use of incarceration as a key drug control tool has disproportionately affected the health and well being of racial and ethnic minority communities. We then… 

The Role of Public Health in Addressing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Mental Health and Mental Illness

A model is presented that illustrates how social determinants of health, interventions, and outcomes interact to affect mental health and mental illness and recommends strategies such as enhanced surveillance, research, evidence-based practice, and public policies that set standards for tracking and reducing disparities.

Black Health Matters: Disparities, Community Health, and Interest Convergence

  • M. Crossley
  • Medicine, Political Science
    Michigan Journal of Race & Law
  • 2016
This Article argues that the ACA’s requirement that tax-exempt hospitals assess the health needs of their communities and take steps to address those needs presents a valuable opportunity to engage hospitals as partners in efforts to reduce racial health disparities, and presents two examples of interventions that could reduce disparities while saving hospitals money.

Disparities in Criminal Justice Outcomes After Beginning Treatment for Substance Use Disorders: The Influence of Race/Ethnicity and Place.

Disparities in arrest outcomes are influenced by both individual- and community-level factors; therefore, strategies for reducing disparities in this treatment outcome should be implemented at both levels.

The Association of Incarceration with Community Health and Racial Health Disparities

The prison population in the United States has grown dramatically because of federal and state policies such as the three strikes laws, judicial provisions for “truth in sentencing,” discontinuation of parole boards, and the increasing privatization of prisons.

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It was found that Black clients were least likely to initiate treatment, but no race or ethnic differences in treatment engagement were found when compared by race or ethnicity.

Anti-racism and substance use treatment: Addiction does not discriminate, but do we?

A need to implement an antiracist framework for substance use treatment in the United States is articulated.

Incarceration as a key variable in racial disparities of asthma prevalence

Having been incarcerated may augment racial disparities in asthma among NYC residents and Statistical mediation analysis revealed that increased rates of incarceration among Blacks partially contribute to the racial disparity in asthma prevalence.

Disproportionate Drug Imprisonment Perpetuates the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in African American Communities

The U.S. inmate population increased by 700% between 1970 and 2005, mainly because correctional policies criminalize drug addiction, and states that have high numbers of drug arrests usually have higher incarceration rates and counties with burgeoning unemployment, persistent poverty and large percentages of African Americans have the highest incarceration rates.



Racial Disparities in the Punishment of Youth: A Theoretical and Empirical Assessment of the Literature

Findings from research on racial disparities in juvenile justice outcomes are mixed and the causes of minority overrepresentation in juvenile justice remain unclear. This study systematically

Trends in Racial Disproportionality in Juvenile Court Processing: 1985-1989

During the 1980s, the population of juvenile correctional facilities became increasingly overrepresented by non-White youths. As a way of analyzing these trends, this study examined data on juvenile

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Despite extensive sociological research, little evidence exists on how court officials' perceptions of offenders influence their classification, assessment, and final recommendations for punishment.

Race, Contexts, and the Use of Intake Diversion

A modified version of Sampson and Laub's integrative conflict perspective, which emphasizes structural contingencies, racial stereotyping, and punitiveness, is used to understand the influence of

Crime, Social Structure and Criminal Punishment: White and Nonwhite Rates of Imprisonment

Durkheimian, Marxist, and Weberian theories provide contrasting views of the influences of the social structure of areas and communities on law and the legal process. In light of these theories, we

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Studies of juvenile court processing are reviewed and found generally to contradict a discrimination argument. Nevertheless, enough evidence of disparity exists to justify a search for contingencies

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Relying on interpretations of the symbolic threat thesis as a theoretical framework, in particular the emphasis on the perceptions of decision-makers and stereotyping, the authors examine the extent

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This article sketches the multidimensional nature of juvenile detention in the United States—its problems and solutions. Data presented include detention one-day population and admission rates,

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The AA. develop a macrolevel framework on inequality and juvenile court processing by integrating ideas drawn from conflict theory, research on urban poverty, and recent race-specific trends in drug

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This research introduces a new social indicator of the long-term probability that juveniles will be taken into state custody. Estimates of the prevalence of state custody are presented for age, sex,