How Antarctica got its ice

  title={How Antarctica got its ice},
  author={Caroline H. Lear and Daniel J. Lunt},
  pages={34 - 35}
A complex set of interactions caused the rapid growth of the Antarctic ice sheet 34 million years ago [Also see Report by Galeotti et al.] Ice sheets such as those on Greenland and Antarctica today not only respond to changing climate but can also cause climate to change. Their sizes have fluctuated substantially in the past. In particular, Antarctica was effectively ice-free until its ice cover began to expand rapidly at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary around 34 million years ago (see the figure… 
Climate sensitivity and meridional overturning circulation in the late Eocene using GFDL CM2.1
Abstract. The Eocene–Oligocene transition (EOT), which took place approximately 34 Ma ago, is an interval of great interest in Earth's climate history, due to the inception of the Antarctic ice sheet
Meridional Contrasts in Productivity Changes Driven by the Opening of Drake Passage
Changes in atmospheric pCO2 are widely suggested to have played a major role in both the long-term deterioration of Cenozoic climate and many superimposed rapid climate perturbations such as the
Tectonics, climate and the diversification of the tropical African terrestrial flora and fauna
This work critically review and synthesize African climate, tectonics and terrestrial biodiversity evolution throughout the Cenozoic to the mid‐Pleistocene, drawing on recent advances in Earth and life sciences.
Understanding processes at the origin of species flocks with a focus on the marine Antarctic fauna
The starting hypothesis is that normal evolutionary processes may provide a sufficient explanation for most SFs and which biological and environmental traits are most favourable to their realization.
Early Stage Adaptation of a Mesophilic Green Alga to Antarctica: Systematic Increases in Abundance of Enzymes and LEA Proteins
It is reported that an Antarctic strain of Chlorella vulgaris, called NJ-7, acquired the capability to grow at near 0 °C temperatures and greatly enhanced freezing tolerance after systematic increases in abundance of enzymes/proteins and positive selection of certain genes.
Geological Society of London Scientific Statement: what the geological record tells us about our present and future climate
Caroline H. Lear1*, Pallavi Anand2, Tom Blenkinsop1, Gavin L. Foster3, Mary Gagen4, Babette Hoogakker5, Robert D. Larter6, Daniel J. Lunt7, I. Nicholas McCave8, Erin McClymont9, Richard D. Pancost10,
’ s repository of research publications and other research outputs Geological Society of London Scientific Statement : what the geological record tells us about our present and future climate
Lear, Caroline H.; Anand, Pallavi; Blenkinsop, Tom; Foster, Gavin L.; Gagan, Mary; Hoogakker, Babette; Larter, Robert D.; Lunt, Daniel J.; McCave, I. Nicholas.; McClymont, Erin; Pancost, Richard D.;
No need for stepping stones: Direct, joint dispersal of the lichen-forming fungus Mastodia tessellata (Ascomycota) and its photobiont explains their bipolar distribution
Novel evidence of a pre-Pleistocene long-term evolution of lichens in Antarctica as well as for bipolar distributions shaped by Southern to Northern Hemisphere migratory routes without the need for stepping stones is provided.
Climate change through Earth history


Antarctic Ice Sheet variability across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary climate transition
Sedimentary cycles from a drillcore in the western Ross Sea provide direct evidence of orbitally controlled glacial cycles between 34 million and 31 million years ago and provide insight into the potential of the AIS for threshold behavior and have implications for its sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 concentrations above present-day levels.
Rapid Cenozoic glaciation of Antarctica induced by declining atmospheric CO2
In this simulation, declining Cenozoic CO2 first leads to the formation of small, highly dynamic ice caps on high Antarctic plateaux, and at a later time, a CO2 threshold is crossed, initiating ice-sheet height/mass-balance feedbacks that cause the ice caps to expand rapidly with large orbital variations, eventually coalescing into a continental-scale East Antarctic Ice Sheet.
Antarctic glaciation caused ocean circulation changes at the Eocene–Oligocene transition
It is found that growth of the Antarctic ice sheet caused enhanced northward transport of Antarctic intermediate water and invigorated the formation of Antarctic bottom water, fundamentally reorganizing ocean circulation, whereas gateway openings had much less impact on ocean thermal stratification and circulation.
Atmospheric carbon dioxide through the Eocene–Oligocene climate transition
The results confirm the central role of declining in the development of the Antarctic ice sheet (in broad agreement with carbon cycle modelling) and help to constrain mechanisms and feedbacks associated with the Earth’s biggest climate switch of the past 65 Myr.
Atmospheric and oceanic impacts of Antarctic glaciation across the Eocene–Oligocene transition
It is shown that the global atmosphere and ocean response to growth of the Antarctic ice sheet is sensitive to subtle variations in palaeogeography, using two reconstructions representing Eocene and Oligocene geological stages using the HadCM3L model.
Cenozoic evolution of Antarctic glaciation the Circum-Antarctic Ocean and their impact on global paleoceanography
Deep-sea drilling in the Antarctic region (Deep-Sea Drilling Project legs 28, 29, 35, and 36) has provided many new data about the development of circum-Antarctic circulation and the closely related
Carbon cycle feedbacks and the initiation of Antarctic glaciation in the earliest Oligocene
The initiation of Antarctic glaciation in the early Oligocene (∼34 Ma) is represented by a distinct positive anomaly in the marine δ18O record designated Oi-1 and accompanied by positive excursions
Links between CO 2 , glaciation and water flow: reconciling the Cenozoic history of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Abstract. The timing of the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is a crucial event of the Cenozoic because of its cooling and isolating effect over Antarctica. It is intimately related
Opening the gateways for diatoms primes Earth for Antarctic glaciation
The abrupt onset of Antarctic glaciation during the Eocene–Oligocene Transition (∼33.7 Ma, Oi1) is linked to declining atmospheric pCO2 levels, yet the mechanisms that forced pCO2 decline remain
Refining our estimate of atmospheric CO2 across the Eocene–Oligocene climatic transition
Abstract The Eocene–Oligocene transition (EOT) followed by Oligocene isotope event 1 (Oi-1) is a dramatic global switch in climate characterized by deep-sea cooling and the first formation of