Hot Water for Handwashing—Where is the Proof?

  title={Hot Water for Handwashing—Where is the Proof?},
  author={Jasminka Goldoni Laestadius and Lennart Dimberg},
  journal={Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine},
To the Editor:The Joint Bank/Fund Health Services Department (HSD) in Washington, DC, was recently contacted with several requests regarding water temperature in the Bank’s restrooms. Because of the approaching cold/flu season, the staff was concerned that lukewarm water did not provide efficient ha 
The Environmental Cost of Misinformation: Why the Recommendation to Use Elevated Temperatures for Handwashing is Problematic.
Health and consumer protection organizations should consider advocating for the use of a "comfortable" temperature rather than warm or hot water, and update beliefs about water temperature to prevent carbon dioxide equivalent emissions from many industrial sources in the U.S. including the Lead and Zinc industries.
Hand hygiene with hand sanitizer versus handwashing: what are the planetary health consequences?
A comparative life cycle assessment was carried out to compare the environmental impact of the UK population practising increased levels of hand hygiene during the COVID-19 pandemic for 1 year and found that using isopropanol based hand sanitizer is better for planetary health.
The Practice of the Dilution of Cleaning Solutions: Motivations and Risks
The aim of the present work was to analyze the antimicrobial effect on six pathogenic microorganisms transmitted by hand on the two most commonly diluted cleaning solutions used in the state of Paraíba (Brazil).
Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 9. Washing and drying of hands to reduce microbial contamination.
Important components of hand washing are potable water for rinsing and soaps to loosen microbes from the skin and paper rather than cloth towels should be encouraged, although single-use cloth towels are present in the washrooms of higher class hotels and restaurants.
The study sought to investigate the perception of students on hand washing in order to prevent diseases in Senior High Schools in the Mampong Municipal Assembly. The study employed the use of
Soap, water, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): an ancient handwashing strategy for preventing dissemination of a novel virus
The mechanisms of decontamination by soap and water (involving both removal and inactivation), the contribution of the various components of formulated soaps to performance as cleansers and to pathogen inactivation and many other pathogen types are described.
SARS-CoV-2 in water services: Presence and impacts☆
Beyond Politics: The Private Governance Response to Climate Change
When the United States withdrew from the Paris Climate Agreement, 100 private corporations reaffirmed their commitment to fighting climate change . While governments are often tasked with facing


Water temperature as a factor in handwashing efficacy
Results of this first study indicated that water temperature exhibits no effect on transient or resident bacterial reduction during normal handwashing with bland soap, and the follow-up study examined the efficacy and skin irritation potential involving water temperatures with antimicrobial soaps.
Handwashing Water Temperature Effects on the Reduction of Resident and Transient (Serratia marcescens) Flora when Using Bland Soap
Water temperature has no effect on transient or resident bacterial reduction during normal handwashing when bland soap is used, and this study evaluates the bacterial reduction efficacy of water temperature duringnormal handwashing.
How irritant is water? An overview
Repeated water exposure without occlusion caused an increase in blood flow on irritated skin; however, clinical evaluation did not show a difference in dryness or scaling; much remains to be done to clarify the risk factors and mechanisms of water‐induced irritation.
Effects of water temperature on surfactant‐induced skin irritation
It is shown that water temperature during washing has an important effect on the onset of irritant contact dermatitis.
Temperature dependency of skin susceptibility to water and detergents.
Investigation of the effect of temperature on the damaging effects of water and detergents on the skin found change of temperature may be a simple but important means for prevention of irritant contact dermatitis.
Hand washing, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization in health care.
  • Medicine
    Canada communicable disease report = Releve des maladies transmissibles au Canada
  • 1998
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. OSH Answers Document. Hand washing: reducing the risk of common infections. Document last updated on
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings