Horton and Wohl Revisited: Exploring Viewers' Experience of Parasocial Interaction

@article{Hartmann2011HortonAW,
  title={Horton and Wohl Revisited: Exploring Viewers' Experience of Parasocial Interaction},
  author={Tilo Hartmann and Charlotte Goldhoorn},
  journal={Journal of Communication},
  year={2011},
  volume={61},
  pages={1104-1121}
}
Linking back to D. Horton and R. Wohl (1956), the present approach conceptualizes and empirically examines viewers’ parasocial interaction experience with a TV performer. Causes and outcomes of parasocial interaction experience are examined. To this end, a new Experience of Parasocial Interaction (EPSI) scale is introduced. In a 2 (Bodily Addressing) × 2 (Verbal Addressing) between-subjects experiment (N = 198) viewers reported a more intense parasocial experience if they were addressed by a TV… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

Reconceptualizing address in television programming: The effect of address and affective empathy on viewer experience of parasocial interaction
Much scholarship has examined the parasocial bonds between audiences and media personalities. However, recent research differentiated between the development of parasocial relationships and theExpand
Parasocial interaction and parasocial relationship: Conceptual clarification and a critical assessment of measures
Parasocial interaction and parasocial relationship are often conflated conceptually and methodologically, leaving researchers unclear as to which concept is being tapped. This research clarifiesExpand
Does the Experience of Parasocial Interaction Enhance Persuasiveness of Video Public Service Messages?
Does the experience of parasocial interaction (EPSI) increase the persuasiveness of a video message? In a between-subjects experiment (N = 465) we used bodily addressing to successfully vary EPSI inExpand
Parasocial Interaction as More Than Friendship
TLDR
This study supports the refinement of the concept of parasocial interaction (PSI) to apply to mediated personae that viewers might dislike by revealing that participants did experience PSI with disliked characters as well as liked characters, and that the two measures of PSI did not appear to assess the same construct. Expand
Cognitive and Imagery Attributes of Parasocial Relationships
In today’s rapidly changing “TV everywhere” environment of ubiquitous and always-connected screens, and instant social media interaction around and with complex and compelling television storylinesExpand
The Effect of Relational and Interactive Aspects of Parasocial Experiences on Attitudes and Message Resistance
This study examines direct and interaction effects of parasocial interactions (PSIs) and relationships (PSRs) on message resistance (reactance and counterarguing) and message-consistent attitudes.Expand
How vloggers embrace their viewers: Focusing on the roles of para-social interactions and flow experience
  • Chia-Lin Hsu
  • Computer Science, Psychology
  • Telematics Informatics
  • 2020
TLDR
This study aims at examining para-social interactions (PSI), their antecedents, and their consequences (i.e., consumers’ sense of belonging, flow experience, urge to purchase, addiction, and impulse purchase), and the mediating role of flow experience. Expand
Exploring the Influence of Parasocial Relationships and Experiences on Radio Listeners’ Consumer Behaviors
The purpose of the present study was to explore the influence of radio listener experiences on radio listening behaviors, consumer perceptions and behaviors, and social media involvement. A nationalExpand
Theorizing Parasocial Interactions Based on Authenticity: The Development of a Media Figure Classification Scheme
The relationships viewers develop with media figures have received substantial attention in the scholarship of entertainment. The present research proposes an original four-dimension classificationExpand
The Development of Parasocial Relationships on YouTube
Continuing research on the development of parasocial relationships, the present study modernized a seminal study conducted by Rubin and McHugh (1987) investigating the relationship amongExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 58 REFERENCES
Interpersonal and psychological predictors of parasocial interaction with different television performers
The study examined the relationship of interpersonal homophily and self‐esteem with the development of parasocial interaction. “Attitude”; homophily was found to be the strongest predictor, among theExpand
Audience Activity and Soap Opera Involvement: A Uses and Effects Investigation.
This investigation examined the role of motives, attitudes, and audience activity in explaining the affective, cognitive, and behavioral involvement of 328 daytime soap opera viewers. Because interExpand
Television Characters as Significant Others and the Process of Vicarious Role Taking
This article develops two ideas pertaining to television and role taking from the perspective of symbolic interactionism. First, viewers may take the role of salient television personalities, duringExpand
Parasocial Interaction: A Review of the Literature and a Model for Future Research
This paper considers the phenomenon of parasocial interaction (PSI) used by media researchers to describe the relationship between media users and media figures (from celebrities to fictionalExpand
Development and validation of a parasocial interaction measure: The audience‐persona interaction scale
This research attempted to develop a multidimensional measure of parasocial interaction. A 47‐item questionnaire derived from qualitative responses was submitted to principal components analysis ‐Expand
Research on Parasocial Involvement: An Overview
Parasocial involvement, an illusion of intimacy between media consumers and media professionals, is one of the most intriguing communication phenomena ever witnessed in media Hyphen saturatedExpand
Compensatory media use: An exploration of two paradigms
This study explores two major theoretical positions concerning social and parasocial interaction. The Deficiency paradigm predicts that individuals most likely to engage in high televisionExpand
The PSI-Process Scales. A new measure to assess the intensity and breadth of parasocial processes
Abstract Research on parasocial interactions (PSI) and parasocial relationships (PSR) refers back to a tradition of 50 years. However, research on both phenomena still suffers from overlappingExpand
Hopelessness and Loneliness as Predictors of Older Adults' Involvement With Favorite Television Performers
This study examined viewer involvement by investigating the relationships between parasocial interaction, wishful identification, identification, and interest, and hopelessness and loneliness amongExpand
Development of parasocial interaction relationships
The parasocial interaction relationship development process was explored by applying principles of uncertainty reduction theory. Results suggested that parasocial relationship development follows aExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...