Hormone therapy and mood in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: a narrative review

  title={Hormone therapy and mood in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: a narrative review},
  author={Elena Toffol and Oskari Heikinheimo and Timo Partonen},
ObjectiveBetween 15% and 50% of women experience depressive symptoms during the menopausal transition; in 15% to 30% of perimenopausal women, they are severe enough to be regarded as a depressive disorder. Fluctuations in gonadal hormone levels are thought to contribute to these depressive conditions. Hormone therapy is commonly used to alleviate climacteric symptoms, but its effects on mood are less clear. We narratively reviewed the literature on the effects of different types of hormone… 

Anxiety in Natural and Surgical Menopause — Physiologic and Therapeutic Bases

The participation of ovarian hormones in the regulation of emotional and affective disorders in women with natural or surgical menopause is reviewed; particularly their anatomical pathways, neurotransmission systems, and the resulting behavioural patterns.

The Impact of Hormone Therapy on Health

Hormone therapy has menopausal symptom control as the main indication, but the normal ovarian cycle includes the regular secretion of progesterone during the days of the luteal phase, this being the reason for adding progestogens to HT formulations in order to protect endometrium.

Low mood and depressive symptoms during perimenopause – Should General Practitioners prescribe hormone replacement therapy or antidepressants as the first-line treatment?

  • M. Leonhardt
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Post reproductive health
  • 2019
A practical overview of the mental health symptoms which women may report to their General Practitioners during the menopausal transition is given and the underlying causes, assessment, risk factors and treatment options based on current evidence are discussed.

Literature Review: Menopause and Sexual Disorders

Vulvovaginal complaints should be managed individualized and depend on the severity of symptoms, medical history, and lifestyle of the patient, to maintain age-related function.

Depression during perimenopause: the role of the obstetrician-gynecologist

There are several evidence-based screening modalities which can be integrated into routine women's health visits, and can facilitate distinguishing between depression and normal perimenopausal symptoms, though critical research gaps remain.

Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Suicide in a National Sample of Midlife and Older Women Veterans.

Menopausal hormone therapy may be an important indicator of suicide risk among midlife and older women and associations with death by suicide remained significant after accounting for psychiatric comorbidity and psychoactive medications.

Relationships between depression and anxiety symptoms and adipocyte-derived proteins in postmenopausal women

It is suggested that higher adiponectin and lower leptin levels may serve as potential markers related to anxiety and mood in postmenopausal women.

Potential Benefits of Berberine in the Management of Perimenopausal Syndrome

The cellular and clinical effects associated with the use of berberine are described, which suggest that this molecule could be an effective natural supplement to ensure a smooth peri- and postmenopausal transition.



Effect of estrogen replacement therapy on symptoms of depression and anxiety in non-depressive menopausal women

Erosion replacement therapy is not associated with improvements in mood or anxiety symptoms in non-depressive, hysterectomized, postmenopausal women.

Estrogen replacement therapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder in perimenopausal women.

This small study suggests that for some antidepressant-naive perimenopausal women with clinical depression, ERT may have antidepressant efficacy in depressed women who have minimal response to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

Depression and the menopause: why antidepressants are not enough?

The combination of the antidepressant with HT seems to offer the best therapeutic potential in terms of efficacy, rapidity of improvement and consistency of remission in the follow-up, as well as the synergistic effect between HT and antidepressants in treating menopausal depression.

Efficacy of estradiol for the treatment of depressive disorders in perimenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Transdermal estradiol replacement is an effective treatment of depression for perimenopausal women and sustained antidepressant benefit of treatment after the 4-week washout period, although somatic complaints increased in frequency and intensity.

Short-term use of estradiol for depression in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: a preliminary report.

Some perimenopausal women with depression may benefit from short-term use of estrogen therapy, and its role for postmenopausal depressed women warrants further investigation.

Associations of hormones and menopausal status with depressed mood in women with no history of depression.

Transition to menopause and its changing hormonal milieu are strongly associated with new onset of depressed mood among women with no history of depression.

Quality of life and menopause: the role of estrogen.

  • M. Freedman
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of women's health
  • 2002
Because the most dramatic hormonal changes associated with menopause are related to estrogen and because estrogen is usually coadministered with a progestogen in patients with an intact uterus, this review is focused primarily on ERT/HRT.

Negative mood changes during hormone replacement therapy: a comparison between two progestogens.

The addition of medroxyprogesterone to estrogen is preferable to norethindrone with respect to mood symptoms in women without a history of premenstrual syndrome.