Identification of Smad Response Elements in the Promoter of Goldfish FSHβ Gene and Evidence for Their Mediation of Activin and GnRH Stimulation of FSHβ Expression
Expression of the hormone-specific beta-subunit of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHbeta) is regulated primarily by gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and activin, with additional feedback by various steroids. While the nature of this hormonal regulation appears conserved, the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects appear less so. This is apparent from the diverse cis-elements required for hormonal stimulation in different species, distinct transcription factors that seem to mediate the effects, as well as the lack of conservation of several reportedly functional cis-elements across species. Recent additional information on the molecular mechanisms through which these regulatory hormones exert their effects, supports the possibility of species-specific mechanisms of regulation, while some redundancy may exist in signaling by the activated transcription factors which allows preservation of the hormonal regulation in these different promoter contexts.