Case control studies of oral contraceptives in the literature proved an increasing risk of cardiovascular diseases ranged from 2 to 6. In the presented GDR-case-control-study 425 women with cardiovascular diseases and 1,275 controls without cardiovascular diseases have been entered. Cases and controls were examined in ten centers. We found no elevated risk for ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and hypertonic heart disease in oral contraceptive users. The risk did not depend on age, type of oral hormonal contraceptive, and duration of use. There was only a statistical significant increase in the estimated relative risk of 2.05 in venous thrombosis and thrombophlebitis. Of course, prudent medical practice requires that a possible risk of certain cardiovascular events during hormonal contraceptive use must be taken into account when weighting the risks and benefits of each patient's contraceptive choices. Further studies are needed.