Hormonal Control of Alveolar Development and Its Implications for Breast Carcinogenesis

  title={Hormonal Control of Alveolar Development and Its Implications for Breast Carcinogenesis},
  author={Cathrin Brisken},
  journal={Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia},
  • C. Brisken
  • Published 2004
  • Medicine
  • Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
During puberty and pregnancy, the breast undergoes major restructuring in order to produce a structure that can secrete and eject copious amounts of milk. By analogy to other branched organs such as the lung or the salivary gland, a large increase in surface area of the specialized epithelium is achieved through repeated ramifications of a system of ducts and alveoli arising from the nipple. In the breast, this process culminates in the appearance of thousands of alveoli or acini, saccular… 

Alveolar and Lactogenic Differentiation

The emerging network of the signaling pathways that connects hormonal stimuli with locally produced signaling molecules and the components of intracellular pathways that regulate alveologenesis and lactation are reviewed.

Morphogenesis of mammary gland development.

Development of the mammary gland in females is a dynamic, orchestrated process that occurs throughout postnatal development, and mammary epithelial cells within the gland begin to attain their unique ability to synthesize various milk constituents, such that by parturition, functional lactogenesis can be realized.

Key stages in mammary gland development - The alveolar switch: coordinating the proliferative cues and cell fate decisions that drive the formation of lobuloalveoli from ductal epithelium

This work proposes that Elf5 is a key regulator of the alveolar switch and examines the role of the ets transcription factor Elf5 in the formation of lobuloalveoli that are capable of milk secretion.

Hormone action in the mammary gland.

Analysis of hormone receptor mutant mouse strains combined with tissue recombination techniques and proteomics revealed that sequential activation of hormone signaling in the mammary epithelium is required for progression of morphogenesis.

Molecular regulators of pubertal mammary gland development

This work reviews the major molecular regulators of pubertal mammary gland development and identifies tissue-specific molecular networks that interpret signals from local cytokines/growth factors in both the epithelial and stromal microenvironments.

Pubertal Mammary Gland Development: Insights from Mouse Models

During puberty the mammary gland develops from a rudimentary tree to a branched epithelial network of ducts which can support alveolar development and subsequent milk production during pregnancy and

of an alveolar cell of origin to the high-grade malignant phenotype of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

It is found that PABCs arise preferentially from an alveolar cell population that expands during pregnancy and lactation, and this somatic mouse model may also be useful for preclinical testing of new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against PABC.



Impact of progesterone receptor on cell-fate decisions during mammary gland development.

Strong evidence is provided to indicate that PR signaling may be of paramount importance for appropriate cell-fate decisions during normal mammary development, and also that this requires a regulated expression of the two isoforms.

Progesterone receptors in the mouse mammary duct: distribution and developmental regulation.

In the mammary epithelium of prepubertal mice, high levels of progesterone receptor mRNA and protein are present in the actively growing end buds and ductal branches as well as in the mature duct, and Cytoplasmic and nuclear immunostaining were observed; interestingly, this staining occurred in separate cells that were in close proximity to each other.

A paracrine role for the epithelial progesterone receptor in mammary gland development.

Together, these results indicate that progesterone acts by a paracrine mechanism on a subset of mammary epithelial cells to allow for alveolar growth and that expression of the PR is not required in all the cells of the Mammary epithelium in order forAlveolar development to proceed normally.

Cellular Turnover in the Mammary Gland Is Correlated with Systemic Levels of Progesterone and Not 17β-Estradiol During the Estrous Cycle1

It is proposed that the cyclical turnover of epithelial cells within the adult mammary tissue is a sum of spatial and functional coordination of hormonal and matrix regulatory factors.

Mammary gland development is mediated by both stromal and epithelial progesterone receptors.

This study suggests that the regulation of mammary gland development by steroid hormones is mediated by distinct effects of the stromal and epithelial PR and differential growth factor expression.

Fibroblast growth factor receptor signalling has a role in lobuloalveolar development of the mammary gland.

It is demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor signalling is necessary for pregnancy dependent lobuloalveolar development of the mammary gland.

Effect of oestradiol on progesterone receptors in normal mammary glands and its relationship with lactation.

Mammary glands of lactating mice, either intact or ovariectomized, do not contain detectable amounts of progesterone receptors and this lack of receptors persists also in tissues of animals treated

Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein: A Developmental Regulatory Molecule Necessary for Mammary Gland Development

The current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying PTHrP actions during normal mammary development and in breast cancer are discussed.

Estrogen receptors α and β in the rodent mammary gland

It was found that both estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, are expressed in the rat mammary gland but the presence and cellular distribution of the two receptors are distinct.