Horizontal gene transfer contributes to the wide distribution and evolution of type II restriction-modification systems

  title={Horizontal gene transfer contributes to the wide distribution and evolution of type II restriction-modification systems},
  author={Albert Jeltsch and Alfred Pingoud},
  journal={Journal of Molecular Evolution},
Restriction modification (RM) systems serve to protect bacteria against bacteriophages. They comprise a restriction endonuclease activity that specifically cleaves DNA and a corresponding methyltransferase activity that specifically methylates the DNA, thereby protecting it from cleavage. Such systems are very common in bacteria. To find out whether the widespread distribution of RM systems is due to horizontal gene transfer, we have compared the codon usages of 29 type II RM systems with the… 
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Natural tuning of restriction endonuclease synthesis by cluster of rare arginine codons
It is hypothesized that expression of the endonuclease gene can be modulated depending on the host genetic context and proposed a novel post-transcriptional mode of R–M system regulation that alleviates the potential lethal action of the restriction enzyme.
Low-level expression of the Type II restriction–modification system confers potent bacteriophage resistance in Escherichia coli
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Solitary restriction endonucleases in prokaryotic genomes
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A Novel Tool for Microbial Genome Editing Using the Restriction-Modification System.
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Genome comparison and context analysis reveals putative mobile forms of restriction–modification systems and related rearrangements
The mobility of restriction–modification (RM) gene complexes and their association with genome rearrangements is a subject of active investigation. Here we conducted systematic genome comparisons and
Real-time kinetics of restriction–modification gene expression after entry into a new host cell
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Plasmid pEC156, a Naturally Occurring Escherichia coli Genetic Element That Carries Genes of the EcoVIII Restriction-Modification System, Is Mobilizable among Enterobacteria
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Regulation of genetic flux between bacteria by restriction–modification systems
It is shown that R-M systems were more abundant in species enduring more DNA exchanges and that within-species flux of genetic material was higher when cognate systems were present, and a recognition target motif predictor is created that identifies genomes encoding systems with similar restriction sites.


On the origins, structures and functions of restriction-modification enzymes.
Study on anti-restriction systems, the repair of DNA single- and double-strand breaks, and the roles of DNA lesions in recombination initiation, suggest RM systems may provoke genome rearrangements and assimilate foreign DNA into the host genome and point towards possible evolutionary sources of this interesting group of DNA metabolizing enzymes.
Type-II Restriction and Modification Enzymes
For the vast majority of these enzymes, there is no genetic evidence showing that they are involved in host-controlled restriction-modification, and it is quite possible that some of them have other, as yet undiscovered, roles in the cell.
Cloning, characterization and evolution of the BsuFI restriction endonuclease gene of Bacillus subtilis and purification of the enzyme.
This observation suggests that R.BsuFI and R.MspI genes derive from a common ancestor, and is the first case where such similarities have been observed between isoschizomeric restriction endonucleases which belong to 5mC specific R/M systems.
BsuBI--an isospecific restriction and modification system of PstI: characterization of the BsuBI genes and enzymes.
The enzymes of the Bacillus subtilis BsuBI restriction/modification (R/M) system recognize the target sequence 5'CTGCAG and are functionally identical with those of the PstI R/M system, encoded by the Gram negative species Providencia stuartii.
Biology of DNA restriction.
The discovery of a new class of restriction systems that specifically cut DNA carrying the modification signature of foreign cells, and the mechanisms developed by phages to avoid the restriction systems of their hosts are described.
Methylation of DNA in prokaryotes.
Their universal distribution, the multitude of enzymes with different or identical specificities observed among prokaryotes and the obligatory coexistence of isospecific restriction and methylating enzymes in restriction/modification systems make DNA methyltransferases choice candidates for evolutionary studies.