Horizontal gene transfer, genome innovation and evolution

@article{Gogarten2005HorizontalGT,
  title={Horizontal gene transfer, genome innovation and evolution},
  author={Johann Peter Gogarten and Jeffrey P. Townsend},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
  year={2005},
  volume={3},
  pages={679-687}
}
To what extent is the tree of life the best representation of the evolutionary history of microorganisms? Recent work has shown that, among sets of prokaryotic genomes in which most homologous genes show extremely low sequence divergence, gene content can vary enormously, implying that those genes that are variably present or absent are frequently horizontally transferred. Traditionally, successful horizontal gene transfer was assumed to provide a selective advantage to either the host or the… 
Horizontal gene transfers as metagenomic gene duplications.
TLDR
It is found that the protein domain architectures of horizontally transferred genes are significantly shorter than the genomic average, which suggests that transfer events behave as if they were drawn randomly from a cross-genomic community gene pool, much like gene duplicates are drawn from a genomic gene pool.
Biased gene transfer in microbial evolution
TLDR
There is evidence that prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) are more likely to transfer genetic material with their close relatives than with distantly related lineages, which can create phylogenetic signals that are difficult to distinguish from the signal created through shared ancestry.
Large-scale dynamics of horizontal transfers
TLDR
This commentary presents the recent contributions to this line of work and possible future directions of dynamic expansion of evolutionary families, which is interconnected with the acquisition of new biological functions and thus with the size and distribution of the genes’ functional categories found on a genome.
Horizontal Gene Transfer Building Prokaryote Genomes: Genes Related to Exchange Between Cell and Environment are Frequently Transferred
TLDR
A method for the detection of genes that potentially originated by HGT is developed based on the comparison of BLAST scores between homologous genes to 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic distances between the involved organisms, which confirms that genes related to protein translation are vertically inherited, whereas interestingly, transport and binding proteins are strongly enriched among HGT genes.
Multilevel populations and the evolution of antibiotic resistance through horizontal gene transfer.
TLDR
It is suggested that the resistance against naturally occurring antibiotics is the likely driving force behind the frequent switching between divergent aaRS types and the reason for the maintenance of these homeoalleles in higher-level exchange groups.
What Nematode genomes tell us about the importance of horizontal gene transfers in the evolutionary history of animals
TLDR
One that highlights the importance of HGT in the emergence of plant parasitism and another one that probably represents the most convincing example of a potential transfer between two different metazoan animals, an insect and a nematode.
Horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes
TLDR
There is clear evidence that anciently acquired genes played an important role in the establishment of primary plastids and in the transition of plants from aquatic to terrestrial environments and reliable approaches are needed to distinguish endosymbionts‐derived genes from those independently acquired from preferential feeding or other activities.
Horizontal gene transfer: building the web of life
TLDR
How HGT has shaped the web of life is described using examples of HGT among prokaryotes, between proKaryotes and eukaryote, and even between multicellular eukaries, to discuss replacement and additive HGT.
Genome-Wide Experimental Determination of Barriers to Horizontal Gene Transfer
TLDR
The data suggest that toxicity to the host inhibited transfer regardless of the species of origin and that increased gene dosage and associated increased expression may be a predominant cause for transfer failure.
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