Horizontal flow and surface patterns in a vertically vibrated annular granular layer.

Abstract

A set of experiments was carried out on the motion of granular materials in a vertically vibrated annular system with a sawtooth-shaped base. We observed the coexistence of granular flow and surface patterns such as periodic subharmonic waves and kink pairs. Different patterns can transit each other as control parameters vary. The flow varies with space and… (More)

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