Horizontal and Vertical Dimensions of Individualism and Collectivism: A Theoretical and Measurement Refinement

  title={Horizontal and Vertical Dimensions of Individualism and Collectivism: A Theoretical and Measurement Refinement},
  author={Theodore M. Singelis and Harry C. Triandis and Dharm Prakash Sharma Bhawuk and Michele J. Gelfand},
  journal={Cross-Cultural Research},
  pages={240 - 275}
In developing a new scale, this article makes theoretical and measurement distinctions between vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism. Vertical collectivism includes perceiving the selfas a part (or an aspect) of a collective and accepting inequalities within the collective. Horizontal collectivism includes perceiving the self as a part of the collective, but seeing all members of the collective as the same; thus equality is stressed. Vertical individualism includes the… Expand

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