Hooligans and Heroes: Youth Identity and Hip-Hop in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

  title={Hooligans and Heroes: Youth Identity and Hip-Hop in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania},
  author={Alex Perullo},
  journal={Africa Today},
  pages={101 - 75}
  • A. Perullo
  • Published 6 July 2005
  • Psychology
  • Africa Today
During the 1990s, the rise in popularity of hip-hop culture in Tanzania brought increased public scrutiny of urban youth due, in part, to preconceived notions of youth culture and rap music. In newspaper articles and public discourses, youth were quickly targeted and labeled hooligans (wahuni), and often associated with words such as violent, hostile, and disruptive. Youth used music to combat these stereotypes and project images of themselves as creative and empowered individuals in society… 
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