Hong Kong triads: the historical and political evolution of urban criminal polity, 1842–2020

@article{Wang2022HongKT,
  title={Hong Kong triads: the historical and political evolution of urban criminal polity, 1842–2020},
  author={Peng Wang and Sharon Ingrid Kwok},
  journal={Urban History},
  year={2022}
}
This article examines the origins and evolution of Hong Kong triads since 1842 through official archival documents, media analysis, interviews with triad members and an analytical framework of criminal politics (organized crime–state relations). We propose ‘the urban criminal polity’ as a novel concept to explicate urban criminal organizations as a non-state power in the city. We argue that interactions between triad societies and the British colonial government were primarily characterized… 

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