Honeybee combs: construction through a liquid equilibrium process?

  title={Honeybee combs: construction through a liquid equilibrium process?},
  author={Christian W. W. Pirk and H. Randall Hepburn and Sarah E. Radloff and J{\"u}rgen Tautz},
Geometrical investigations of honeycombs and speculations on how honeybees measure and construct the hexagons and rhombi of their cells are centuries old. Here we show that honeybees neither have to measure nor construct the highly regular structures of a honeycomb, and that the observed pattern of combs can be parsimoniously explained by wax flowing in liquid equilibrium. The structure of the combs of honeybees results from wax as a thermoplastic building medium, which softens and hardens as a… 

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