History of the events leading to the formulation of the apoptosis concept.

  title={History of the events leading to the formulation of the apoptosis concept.},
  author={John F. R. Kerr},
  • J. Kerr
  • Published 27 December 2002
  • Medicine
  • Toxicology
Immunology of Apoptosis and Necrosis
A complex of reactions regulating the number of cells in organs and tissues under normal and pathologic conditions is one of the most important systems of multicellular organisms. In this system,
Chondroptosis: A variant of apoptotic cell death in chondrocytes?
The term ‘chondroptosis’ is proposed to reflect the fact that such cells are undergoing apoptosis in a non-classical manner that appears to be typical of programmed chondrocyte death in vivo, and it is speculated that the endoplasmic reticulum pathway of apoptosis plays a greater role than receptor-mediated or mitochondrial pathways and that lysosomal proteases are at least as important as caspases.
Analyzing markers of apoptosis in vitro.
This chapter suggests methods to identify characteristic morphological and biochemical events, and cell-free systems that can be used to identify the molecular pathways leading to the death phenotype.
Apoptosis in Critical Illness: A Primer for the Intensivist
Recognition of the importance of apoptosis in health and disease, and an understanding of its cellular mechanisms, has increased exponentially since it was coined in 1972.
In Vivo Detection of Apoptosis
The most recent developments in the biochemical characterization of the many intracellular pathways involved in this complex process are discussed and the use of MRI, MR spectroscopy, and ultrasound as possible alternative imaging modalities for the imaging of apoptosis is addressed.
Chapter 2 Apoptosis
The work on mitochondrial cristae remodelling has elucidated a novel checkpoint for apoptosis, which may determine sensitivity to apoptosis in vivo, during adult animal life.
Apoptosis: A Review of Programmed Cell Death
The goal of this review is to provide a general overview of current knowledge on the process of apoptosis including morphology, biochemistry, the role of apoptoses in health and disease, detection methods, as well as a discussion of potential alternative forms of apoptotic proteins.
Genetic control of necrosis - another type of programmed cell death.
  • K. McCall
  • Biology
    Current opinion in cell biology
  • 2010
Apoptosis effector mechanisms: A requiem performed in different keys
The molecular regulation of caspases and various caspase-independent effectors of apoptosis are discussed, the potential context and/or limitations of these mechanisms are described, and why the understanding of these processes may have relevance in cancer where treatment is believed to engage apoptosis to destroy tumor cells.
Apoptosis in selected liver diseases.
The role of apoptosis in select important liver diseases is focused on and rational-based strategies are being developed to either promote or suppress apoptotic cell death as a novel therapeutic option in the treatment of these liver diseases.


Apoptosis: A Basic Biological Phenomenon with Wide-ranging Implications in Tissue Kinetics
Apoptosis seems to be involved in cell turnover in many healthy adult tissues and is responsible for focal elimination of cells during normal embryonic development, and participates in at least some types of therapeutically induced tumour regression.
Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.
Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response, and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage.
Publications in Cell Death: the golden age
Apoptosis or Programmed Cell Death has been among the fastest growing fields in the last decade. Indeed, the number of publications has increased from fewer than 100 in 1990 to over 13 000 in 2000,
The relationship of acute mesodermal cell death to the teratogenic effects of 7-OHM-12-MBA in the foetal rat.
ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4
Adrenocortical cell deletion: The role of ACTH
Lysosome changes in acute liver injury due to heliotrine.
  • J. Kerr
  • Medicine
    The Journal of pathology and bacteriology
  • 1967
An electron‐microscope study of liver cell necrosis due to heliotrine