History of the Use and Epidemiology of Organophosphorus Poisoning

@inproceedings{Soltaninejad2014HistoryOT,
  title={History of the Use and Epidemiology of Organophosphorus Poisoning},
  author={Kambiz Soltaninejad and Shahin Shadnia},
  year={2014}
}
Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are organic derivatives of phosphorus that have largely been used as pesticides and nerve agents. Tetraethylpyrophosphate was synthesized in 1854 as the first OP cholinesterase inhibitor. During 1934–1944, Gerhard Schrader, a German chemist at I. G. Farben industries and his coworkers synthesized about 2,000 OP compounds, including parathion as a pesticide and tabun, sarin, and soman as chemical warfare nerve agents. Although the nerve agents had been produced in… 
Organic-Molecule-Based Fluorescent Chemosensor for Nerve Agents and Organophosphorus Pesticides
TLDR
Major advancement has been observed in the development of sensors using the spectroscopic technique over recent years because of the advantages offered over other techniques, which are focused on in the presented review.
Neurotoxicity in acute and repeated organophosphate exposure.
BIOREMEDIATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES : CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTIVE
TLDR
The usages, current pollution status, and major accomplishments towards bioremediation of some widely used OPPs such as chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, fenitrothion etc are described.
Profenofos, an Acetylcholinesterase-Inhibiting Organophosphorus Pesticide: A Short Review of Its Usage, Toxicity, and Biodegradation.
TLDR
The worldwide usage of PFF pesticide, its toxic effects on humans and other living organisms in the environment, and biodegradation of this chemical by various microbial strains are discussed.
"That's Not His Regular Formula": A Case of Organophosphate Poisoning in an Infant.
TLDR
This case highlights the importance of safety education for families and demonstrates how to recognize and treat OP toxicity in an infant, and emphasizes starting treatment early to avoid complications secondary to aging.
MODIFIED SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES; REPORT OF TWO CASES OF SUICIDES
TLDR
Modified solid phase extraction method is so helpful for toxicological analysis and detection of cause of the death in suicide, homicide or accidental died cases of organophosphorus poisoning referred to legal medicine organization.
Enzymatic detoxification of organophosphorus pesticides and related toxicants.
TLDR
The use of enzymes for treating of organophosphorus pesticide intoxication is critically reviewed and the remaining challenges are discussed.
Prognostic Value of Insecticide Type and Enzymatic Activities on Severity of Acute Insecticides Poisoning
TLDR
The present study identified more than one type of pesticides mainly of organophosphate category among acutely poisoned patients and pointed to those persons with higher paraoxonase activity and less cholinesterase inhibition may have a better chance of toxic effects amelioration.
Polymer Based Formulation and Immobilization Approaches in Enzymatic Detoxification of Organophosphorus Compounds: A Review
TLDR
Enzymatic formulations of Organophosphates degrading enzymes are reviewed with specific focus on polymer based approaches and immobilization techniques for better detoxification efficiency.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 81 REFERENCES
Neurotoxic disorders of organophosphorus compounds and their managements.
TLDR
Recent advances on treatment of organophosphorus pesticides poisoning revealed that blood alkalinization with sodium bicarbonate and also magnesium sulfate as adjunctive therapies are promising.
Recent Advances in the Treatment of Organophosphorous Poisonings
TLDR
Investigations have revealed that intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate to produce mild to moderate alkalinization is effective and intravenous magnesium sulfate decreased hospitalization duration and improved outcomes in patients with organophosphorous poisoning.
Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents
TLDR
The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities, and the management should be started as soon as possible.
Study of Various Poisoning: A Review
TLDR
The most widely used diagnostic tests for OP exposure are the estimation of plasma ( PchE) cholinesterase and red blood cells AchE activity and activated charcoal should be an extremely valuable theropy since if is widely available in the developing world.
Organophosphate pesticides: A general review
TLDR
The ministry of agriculture of developing countries especially Iran should concentrate on the optimization and monitoring of usage of OP compounds as pesticides and furthermore, encouraging the farmers to use natural pesticides and organic agriculture rather than chemical pesticides.
Organophosphate Pesticides: Biochemistry and Clinical Toxicology
  • T. Kwong
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Therapeutic drug monitoring
  • 2002
TLDR
Patients who receive treatment promptly usually recover from acute toxicity but may suffer from neurologic sequelae.
Sources of exposure to and public health implications of organophosphate pesticides.
  • K. Jaga,, C. Dharmani
  • Medicine
    Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health
  • 2003
TLDR
Organophosphate pesticides continue to pose a risk to human health in the United States and among the public there should be an increased awareness of environmental exposure to organophosphates as well as of the threat of chemical warfare or terrorism.
Epidemiology of organophosphate pesticide poisoning in Taiwan
TLDR
All human OP exposures reported to Taiwan's Poison Control Centers from July 1985 through December 2006 are reviewed, finding dimethyl OPs cause the majority of deaths in Taiwan.
...
...