History of the Egg in Embryology

  title={History of the Egg in Embryology},
  author={Alexander D. Lopata},
Abstract: From antiquity humans have tried to understand how a new individual is generated after sexual intercourse. A popular notion was that a woman's blood and a man's semen were involved. Aristotle, based on studies of chick embryology, proposed that the mixture produced an egg from which the foetus developed in the uterus. This idea lasted for nearly two thousand years. William Harvey disproved the old notion by finding an empty uterus in a variety of animals soon after mating. Although… 

De ovi mammalium et hominis genesi (1827), by Karl Ernst von Baer

Men) is an 1827 pamphlet by von Baer about the anatomical observation and description of the egg [3] (ovum [4] ) of mammals, like dogs and humans [5] . The pamphlet detailed evidence for the

De ovi mammalium et hominis genesi (1827), by Karl Ernst von Baer [1]

Men) is an 1827 pamphlet by von Baer about the anatomical observation and description of the egg [3] (ovum [4] ) of mammals, like dogs and humans [5] . The pamphlet detailed evidence for the

Portrait of an oocyte: our obscure origin.

Research needs to focus on the molecular factors involved and the environmental niche required for optimal development of oocytes, with the aim of increasing their numbers and quality for ARTs, since these are the factors that so often limit human fertility.

Germline stem cells: new insights into female infertility management

The article under evaluation demonstrates for the first time that candidate oogonial stem cells can be reliably isolated from adult mice and human ovaries through a FACS-based approach.

Developmental Sciences from ′Humuncles′ to CRISPR/Cas9

Developmental science is a broad term that collectively includes Embryology and Developmental Biology and each specialty has multiple subspecialties and niches and is still an active area of research at the cross-points of gene editing, developing inter-species chimeras, treatment of infertility, cure of genetic diseases and organ transplantation.

The Role and Influence of the Mother in the Development of the Fetus: Comparative Study of Qur’an, Hadiths, and Modern Medical Perspectives

The relationship between some Qur'anic verses, Hadiths, and the results of new medical research on the importance of mother’s role in the development of the fetus and future of the newborn life is discussed and it can be concluded that Qur’an and Hadiths are consistent with modern science.

Treating Infertility in IVF Clinics: Therapeutic Potential of Stem Cells

Applications of MSCs in infertility clinics and start of their clinical trials may open new horizons of treatment in infertility, and clinical trials of transdifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells may give valuable results to combat increased infertility in the world.

The history of Fertility Awareness Methods

The aim of the study is to present the history of FAM development, to present groundbreaking discoveries and people to whom the current state of knowledge about the symptoms of human fertility is owed.

The First Brazilian Thesis of Evolution: Haeckel's Recapitulation Theory and Its Relations with the Idea of Progress.

The author's text, in which he explicitly recognized the influence of Ernst Haeckel's recapitulation theory, represents a window to understand better a concept of nation based on science and on the idea of inexorable progress that was accepted in Brazil at the end of the nineteenth century.



A history of mammalian embryological research.

  • H. Alexandre
  • Biology
    The International journal of developmental biology
  • 2001
Mammalian embryology remained a purely descriptive discipline until the second half of the XXth century, when a handful of exceptional scientists managed to obtain reproducibly the development of mouse eggs in a chemically defined medium and to transfer the eggs to the uterine horns of pseudopregnant females.

Development of Transplanted Rat Eggs

This experiment has been repeated as a test for egg viability and its capacity for continued development, and the results show that one horn of the uterus can be removed without disturbing the development of the embryos contained within the opposite horn.

Egg culture: the foundation.

  • R. Hammer
  • Biology
    The International journal of developmental biology
  • 1998
A foundation of understanding about the biology of early mammalian eggs was established between 1960 and 1970, and subsequent studies have broadened this understanding, but the greatest impact of a simple, reliable egg culture method has been to provide the ability to perform complicated manipulative procedures on preimplantation stages of mammalian embryos.

Successful Development and Birth of Mice cultivated in vitro as Early Embryos

The first successful attempt to combine the techniques of embryo culture and embryo transplantation was briefly reported by Adams1, and normal embryos in the uterus of the recipient female, presumably developed from the cultured embryos.

Reflections on the culture of the preimplantation embryo.

  • J. Biggers
  • Biology
    The International journal of developmental biology
  • 1998
It is concluded that even the best available media inevitably cause imbalances in the environment in which the embryos are forced to develop, because they consist of only a small subset of the compounds present in the natural environments.

Observations on the mammary tumor incidence of mice born from transferred ova.

Large numbers of ova were transferred from the high mammary tumor dba strain to the low mammary tumors C57 black strain and vice versa and the animals were divided into the following 4 groups.

III. Preliminary note on the transplantation and growth of mammalian ova within a uterine foster-mother

  • W. Heape
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London
  • 1891
It is shown that it is possible to make use of the uterus of one variety of rabbit as a medium for the growth and complete fœtal development of fertilised ova of another variety of Rabbit.

Landmarks in developmental biology

  • K. Sander
  • History
    Roux's archives of developmental biology
  • 2006
A series of essays highlighting problems and achievements in developmental biology in the discipline's early years is initiated, encouraged by the increasing interest taken by practising developmental biologists in various countries in the history of their discipline and in the views of its pioneers.


  • R. Brinster
  • Biology, Chemistry
    The Journal of experimental zoology
  • 1965
It was found that two-cell mouse ova would not develop into blastocysts in medium that did not contain a fixed-nitrogen source, and single amino acids were omitted from the medium containing the constituent amino acids of BSA in an attempt to demonstrate an essential amino acid requirement of two- cell mouse Ova.

Fertilization of Rabbit Ova in vitro

The results of experiments carried out in an effort to raise the percentage of fertilization in vitro of rabbit ova and on some factors which may affect mammalian fertilization are reported on.