History of blood gas analysis. VI. Oximetry

  title={History of blood gas analysis. VI. Oximetry},
  author={John W. Severinghaus and Poul B. Astrup},
  journal={Journal of Clinical Monitoring},
Oximetry, the measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in either blood or tissue, depends on the Lambert-Beer relationship between light transmission and optical density. [] Key Method Millikan built a light-weight car “oximeter” during World War II to train pilots for military aviation. Wood added a pneumatic cuff to obtain a bloodless zero. Brinkman and Zijlstra in Groningen, The Netherlands, showed that red light reflected from the forehead could be used to measure oxygen saturation. Zijlstra initiated…

Pulse oximetry and CO-oximetry.

Pulse oximetry greatly reduced the incidence of lethal hypoxemia during anesthetic events and became a standard piece of monitoring equipment in human medicine during the 1980s and COoximeter manufacturers use a number of proprietary algorithms to correct and calculate hemoglobin values.

The Light–Tissue Interaction of Pulse Oximetry

The light–tissue interaction in pulse oximetry is reviewed and some of the assumptions made and their implications are described, which can disrupt the optical integrity of the measurement and negatively impact the oxygen saturation reading accuracy.

Blood Oxygen Saturation Measurements

Pulse oximeters for fetal use and measurement at the retina are under active development, and pulse oximetry, which can measure blood oxygen saturation with comparable accuracy, is the one that has been widely used in clinical environments.

The measurement of dyshemoglobins and total hemoglobin by pulse oximetry

The development of multiwavelength pulse oximeters, which can measure total hemoglobin as well as dyshemoglobins, should result in improved patient care.

Pulse Oximetry in Pediatric Practice

The physiologic principles and limitations of pulse oximetry are described, normal values are discussed, and its importance in common pediatric diseases is highlighted, in which the principle mechanism of hypoxemia is ventilation/perfusion mismatch versus hypoventilation.

Evaluation of a Pulse Oximeter Sensor Tester

The findings suggest that the Lightman can detect faulty probes and predict reasonably accurately the direction of the probe’s error and may be considered as a useful tool to assess the accuracy of pulse oximeters.

Accuracy and trending ability of hemoglobin measurement by the Pulse CO-Oximeter during vascular surgery

The results have shown that the SpHb is not precise enough to replace an invasive approach, but the trending ability of SpHB is accurate and may provide important information on the changes in hemoglobin concentration to guide blood management.

The Current Status of Continuous Noninvasive Measurement of Total, Carboxy, and Methemoglobin Concentration

This review describes the peer-reviewed literature addressing the accuracy of commercial pulse oximeters that measure total hemoglobin concentration and one (Masimo) that also measures methemoglobin and carboxyhemoglobin.

Pulse oximeter accuracy and precision at five different sensor locations in infants and children with cyanotic heart disease

Pulse oximetry readings are used clinically as an indirect estimation of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) as well as reliability and precision in congenital heart disease patients in the immediate post-corrective stage.



Spectrophotometric monitoring of arterial oxygen saturation in the fingertip

The instrument has been useful in monitoring arterial oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure in the authors' intensive-care unit and the reproducibility was assessed in a healthy subject by measuring the oxygen saturation repeatedly 60 times.

The Oximeter, an Instrument for Measuring Continuously the Oxygen Saturation of Arterial Blood in Man

The oxygen saturation of arterial blood in man can be measured continuously in situ by means of bichromatic photoelectric colorimetry of the intact fully flushed ear. The accuracy of the device as

Experiences with a new direct-reading oxygen saturation photometer using ultrasound for hemolyzing the blood.

The new oxygen saturation meter (OSM2, Radiometer A/S, Copenhagen) is fully automatic and measures the oxygen saturation and the hemoglobin concentration of whole blood or packed red cells. Volume

In vivo studies with an intravascular and intracardiac reflection oximeter.

An oximeter is described which employs two bundles of flexible glass fibers to conduct appropriately filtered light into, and that light diffusely reflected by the blood out of, the blood stream for

[Non-invasive determination of oxygen saturation with the oxygenmet pulse wave oximeter on fingers, metacarpus and wrist of infants. Comparison with the oxygen saturation calculated from the pH and pO2 of the blood gas analysis (author's transl)].

Oxygen saturation was determined non-invasively with the oxygenmet pulse wave oximeter 1471 and mathematically from the pH and pO2 of the blood gas analysis and showed a very close correlation.

A photo-electric oxyhemograph; a continuous method for measuring the oxygen saturation of the blood.

The purpose of this presentation is to describe a bichromatic photo-electric method of measuring blood oxygen saturation, as registered through the ear, a unique feature of the method being the amplification by means of a "contact modulated" D.C. amplifier which is both stable and sensitive and allows the making of a permanent record on a rugged D. c.

Effects of multiple scattering and peripheral circulation on arterial oxygen saturation measured with a pulse-type oximeter

An in vitro study was performed to clarify the possible contribution of multiple scattering on the saturation measurement and the effects of an impaired peripheral circulation on the arterial oxygen saturation values of the pulse-type oximeter.

Spectrophotometric investigation of pulsatile blood flow for transcutaneous reflectance oximetry.

This study has demonstrated for the first time that arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation can be measured quantitatively using transcutaneous reflectance techniques, but more extensive work is needed to further develop this technique into a viable clinical tool.