History of blood gas analysis. VI. Oximetry

@article{Severinghaus1986HistoryOB,
  title={History of blood gas analysis. VI. Oximetry},
  author={John W. Severinghaus and Poul B. Astrup},
  journal={Journal of Clinical Monitoring},
  year={1986},
  volume={2},
  pages={270-288}
}
Oximetry, the measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in either blood or tissue, depends on the Lambert-Beer relationship between light transmission and optical density. [] Key Method Millikan built a light-weight car “oximeter” during World War II to train pilots for military aviation. Wood added a pneumatic cuff to obtain a bloodless zero. Brinkman and Zijlstra in Groningen, The Netherlands, showed that red light reflected from the forehead could be used to measure oxygen saturation. Zijlstra initiated…

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The Current Status of Continuous Noninvasive Measurement of Total, Carboxy, and Methemoglobin Concentration

This review describes the peer-reviewed literature addressing the accuracy of commercial pulse oximeters that measure total hemoglobin concentration and one (Masimo) that also measures methemoglobin and carboxyhemoglobin.

Pulse oximeter accuracy and precision at five different sensor locations in infants and children with cyanotic heart disease

Pulse oximetry readings are used clinically as an indirect estimation of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) as well as reliability and precision in congenital heart disease patients in the immediate post-corrective stage.
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References

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The instrument has been useful in monitoring arterial oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure in the authors' intensive-care unit and the reproducibility was assessed in a healthy subject by measuring the oxygen saturation repeatedly 60 times.

The Oximeter, an Instrument for Measuring Continuously the Oxygen Saturation of Arterial Blood in Man

The oxygen saturation of arterial blood in man can be measured continuously in situ by means of bichromatic photoelectric colorimetry of the intact fully flushed ear. The accuracy of the device as

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The new oxygen saturation meter (OSM2, Radiometer A/S, Copenhagen) is fully automatic and measures the oxygen saturation and the hemoglobin concentration of whole blood or packed red cells. Volume

In vivo studies with an intravascular and intracardiac reflection oximeter.

An oximeter is described which employs two bundles of flexible glass fibers to conduct appropriately filtered light into, and that light diffusely reflected by the blood out of, the blood stream for

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The purpose of this presentation is to describe a bichromatic photo-electric method of measuring blood oxygen saturation, as registered through the ear, a unique feature of the method being the amplification by means of a "contact modulated" D.C. amplifier which is both stable and sensitive and allows the making of a permanent record on a rugged D. c.

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This study has demonstrated for the first time that arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation can be measured quantitatively using transcutaneous reflectance techniques, but more extensive work is needed to further develop this technique into a viable clinical tool.
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