History of anaesthesia: The ketamine story - past, present and future.

  title={History of anaesthesia: The ketamine story - past, present and future.},
  author={Georges Mion},
  journal={European Journal of Anaesthesiology},
  • G. Mion
  • Published 1 September 2017
  • Medicine, Biology
  • European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Maddox, a chemist, discovered a process which led to the synthesis of phencyclidine or PCP [N-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)-piperidine] on 26 March 1956. ParkeDavis pharmacologist, Dr Chen, received the compound CI-395 (Fig. 1) from Maddox on 11 September 1958. Chen and, in the same period, Dr Domino, began to study the experimental effects of the drug on animals. Phencyclidine created potent analgesia in animals: laparotomies were performed in monkeys without pain, but the animals were in a cataleptic… 

Ketamine for Chronic Pain: Old Drug New Trick?

  • J. Clark
  • Medicine, Biology
  • 2020
Ketamine is exceedingly useful in anesthesia and psychiatry, but despite successes, it is struggle to identify clear roles for ketamine in patients affected by chronic pain, and the ongoing ROCKET (Reduction Of Chronic Post-surgical Pain with Ketamine) trial involving 8,000+ subjects will hopefully clarify the issue.

Application of Ketamine in Current Practice of Anesthesiology

Combined use of ketamine and an opiate analgesic has been found to provide good perioperative pain control with reduction in symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, sedation, and respiratory insufficiency.

An Update on the Basic and Clinical Science of Ketamine Analgesia

Clinically, there is evidence that ketamine can provide analgesia in a variety of pain syndromes, and potential novel use in pain management is examined.

Effect of novel ketamine-analogue R5 on brain activation and select behavioural parameters

R5 shows an analgesic effect similar to ketamine, most likely by targeting a similar subset of brain sites, which suggests that this particular ester-analogue can be considered as a good candidate for conceptualizing future pain management strategies.

Sense and Insensibility – An Appraisal of the Effects of Clinical Anesthetics on Gastropod and Cephalopod Molluscs as a Step to Improved Welfare of Cephalopods

Criteria previously applied to gastropods and vertebrates have proved successful in developing a method for humanely anesthetizing Octopus with clinical doses of isoflurane, i.e., changes in respiratory rate, color pattern and withdrawal responses.

A historical review of antidepressant effects of ketamine and its enantiomers

A review of the clinical applications of ketamine in pediatric oncology

A brief account of the pharmacology of ketamine is provided and its value for chronic pain management in children with cancer is being increasingly recognized but requires more evidence.



Taming the Ketamine Tiger

The results indicate that this drug is an effective analgesic and anesthetic agent in doses of 1.0 to 2.0 mg per kilogram, and it is proposed that the words “dissociative anesthetic” be used to describe the mental state produced by this drug.

Pharmacologic effects of CI‐581, a new dissociative anesthetic, in man

The results indicate that this drug is an effective analgesic and anesthetic agent in doses of 1.0 to 2.0 mg per kilogram, and it is proposed that the words “dissociative anesthetic” be used to describe the mental state produced by this drug.

Clinical Study of Droperidol in the Prevention of the Side Effects of Ketamine Anesthesia: A Preliminary Report

The pharmacologic characteristics of droperidol, a new major tranquilizer, suggest that it might conceivably be effective against such undesirable side effects as dreams, hallucinations, excitement, or restlessness after anesthesia with ketamine.

[20 years of ketamine--a backward look].

Twenty years ago, ketamine was introduced into clinical use in Germany. Since this time, advantages and disadvantages of "dissociative anesthesia" with ketamine have been reported in many studies.

Pharmacology of Ketamine Isomers in Surgical Patients

Differences in anesthetic potencies, intraoperative effects, analgesia, physical side effects, incidences and types of postanesthetic emergence phenomena, and anesthetic preferences among the optical isomers of ketamine are disclosed.

Clinical studies of induction agents. XXXVI: Ketamine.

The intravenous anaesthetic ketamine has been given to patients undergoing minor gynaecological surgery after atropine prcmedication in initial doses ranging from 1.0 to 3.0 mg/kg, with a high incidence of delirium at all dose levels.

Dissociative Anesthesia: Further Pharmacologic Studies and First Clinical Experience with the Phencyclidine Derivative Cl‐581

HERE IS A definite need for safe and T potent intravenously administered anesthetics of short duration which combine analgesic and sleep-producing effects without significant cardiovascular and

Ketamine: a new look at an old drug.

Combination with propofol or midazolam for sedation provides analgesia, sleep and spontaneous ventilation and the S-isomer of ketamine has a lower incidence of psychomimetic side effects in equianalgesic doses compared with the racemate or the R-isomers alone.

Development of Rapidly Metabolized and Ultra-Short-Acting Ketamine Analogs

The 5 norketamine esters retain the hypnotic characteristics of the parent compound, yet display rapid offset due to ultrarapid metabolism, which might markedly reduce the dysphoric emergence phenomena and increase the utility of a ketamine-like hypnotic and analgesic.

The Influence of Chlorpromazine, Diazepam, and Droperidol On Emergence from Ketamine

Moderate and rather favorable cardiovascular and respiratory effects, no apparent organ damage, ease of administration, and a wide margin of safety constitute sufficient advantages to assure ketamine a place in clinical practice.