History of Semiconductor Research

  title={History of Semiconductor Research},
  author={Gerald L. Pearson and Walter Houser Brattain},
  journal={Proceedings of the IRE},
This paper presents a running story of semiconductor research from its earliest beginnings up to the present day, with special emphasis on the inception of new ideas and the resolution of older discrepancies. At several points in the story; short interludes are taken to fill in the status as of that time. Semiconductor research began quite inconspicuously about 120 years ago with some observations on the electrical properties of silver suphide. Progress was very slow for the next 50 years and… 
Pre-1900 Semiconductor Research and Semiconductor Device Applications
This paper presents a critique of the origin of semiconductors and pre 1900 developments in semiconductor research and device applications. Although the history of semiconductors stretches back to a
Single crystals of germanium and silicon—Basic to the transistor and integrated circuit
  • G. Teal
  • Physics
    IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
  • 1976
HEN the transistor was discovered at Bell Laboratories there were few even within the Labs who knew about it for some months due to a decision of management to maintain close security for a period.
The Materiality of Microelectronics
This study advocates for ‘materials‐centered’ accounts in the history of technology, and presents such an analysis for the early history of microelectronics. Innovations in semiconductor crystal
Research on crystal rectifiers during World War II and the invention of the transistor
Extensive research in America and Great Britain during World War II on crystal rectifiers, used for the detection and frequency conversion of radar signals, helped set the stage for the transistor.
Review and Evaluation of Power Devices and Semiconductor Materials Based on Si, SiC, and Ga-N
There is no reservation that semiconductor equipment distorted the world despite the fact of doing the practical experiments and also in research field. Researchers will communicate the process of
Miniaturization of Electronics
Miniaturization has made it possible for electronics to penetrate society more widely and deeply than ever before. Pocket calculators, electronic watches, miniature colour television receivers and
There are two questions that are frequently asked about semiconductor surface research. First, in what ways do the bulk and surface properties of semiconductors depend on each other? Second, and
The emergence of semiconductors: Nineteenth century modern physics
Volta’s invention of the battery at the end of the eighteenth century generated an era of research devoted to electrical conduction. Classical theory served well for currents in metals, but was


A new electronic rectifier
A new rectifier utilizing a partially oxidized disk of copper as a rectifier unit is described. The disks may be arranged into groups suitable for all fields of rectifier applications. The
Thyrite A New Material for Lightning Arresters
  • K. B. Mceachron
  • Physics
    Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers
  • 1930
A new material has been developed which is peculiarly adapted for use in lightning arresters. It is physically similar to dry process porcelain and it can be made in any shape that can be
Surface Properties of Semiconductors.
A New Type of Photoelectric Effect in Cuprous Oxide in a Magnetic Field
WHEN a plate immersed in liquid air and placed in a magnetic field parallel to its plane is illuminated by a beam of white light perpendicular to its plane, an electromotive force E is produced
The Magneto-Resistance Effect in Oriented Single Crystals of Germanium
This paper describes an extensive study of the magneto-resistance effect in germanium as a function of crystal orientation. Experimental measurements establish the constants involved in the
Transport properties of a many-valley semiconductor
The simple model of a semiconductor, based on a single effective mass for the charge carriers and a spherical shape for the surfaces of constant energy, is now known to be inadequate for most of the
Theory of relation between hole concentration and characteristics of germanium point contacts
The theory of the relation between the current-voltage characteristic of a metal-point contact to n-type germanium and the concentration of holes in the vicinity of the contact is discussed. It is
Theory of transient phenomena in the transport of holes in an excess semiconductor
An analysis is given of the transient behavior of the density of holes n h in an excess semiconductor as a function of lime t and of position x with respect to the electrode from which they are being
Silicon P-N Junction Alloy Diodes
A new type of p-n junction silicon diode has been prepared by alloying acceptor or donor impurities with n- or p-type silicon. The unique features of this diode are: (a) reverse currents as low as