History and Progress of the Tow-thomas Bi-Quadratic Filter Part I: Generation and op Amp Realizations

@article{Soliman2008HistoryAP,
  title={History and Progress of the Tow-thomas Bi-Quadratic Filter Part I: Generation and op Amp Realizations},
  author={Ahmed M. Soliman},
  journal={Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers},
  year={2008},
  volume={17},
  pages={33-54}
}
The history of Tow–Thomas second-order filter is reviewed. Two alternative generation methods of the Tow–Thomas filter are discussed. The first is a generation method from the second-order passive RLC filter and the second is from the multiple feedbacks inverting low-pass filter using a single op amp. Several forms of the circuit are briefly reviewed. Passive and active compensation methods to improve the circuit performance for high-Q designs are summarized. Spice simulation results are… CONTINUE READING