Historical roots of gauge invariance

  title={Historical roots of gauge invariance},
  author={James Jackson and Lev Borisovich Okun},
  journal={Reviews of Modern Physics},
Gauge invariance is the basis of the modern theory of electroweak and strong interactions (the so called Standard Model). The roots of gauge invariance go back to the year 1820 when electromagnetism was discovered and the first electrodynamic theory was proposed. Subsequent developments led to the discovery that different forms of the vector potential result in the same observable forces. The partial arbitrariness of the vector potential A brought forth various restrictions on it. div A = 0 was… 

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