Historical aspects of botulinum toxin

@article{Erbguth1999HistoricalAO,
  title={Historical aspects of botulinum toxin},
  author={Frank Erbguth and Markus K Naumann},
  journal={Neurology},
  year={1999},
  volume={53},
  pages={1850 - 1850}
}
In recent years, the molecular mode of action of the neurotoxins produced by different strains of Clostridium botulinum has been successfully elucidated.1,2 Simultaneously, botulinum toxin type A has proved to be effective and safe in the treatment of conditions caused by focal contractions of skeletal muscles, such as strabismus, hemifacial spasm, focal dystonias, spasticity, and some autonomic disorders.3-11 Therapeutic chemodenervation with botulinum toxin was pioneered by Alan B. Scott in… 
Molecular targets of botulinum toxin serotypes A and C: an experimental in-vitro and in-vivo study
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the different types of muscle react differently to the action of toxins, and co-administration of BoNTs can be a novel and efficient way to treat bladder pain and bladder reflex activity, as the antinociceptive action could be increased with the possible synergistic effects.
BOTULINUM TOXIN : HISTORY AND PHARMACOLOGY
Botulism was originally called “sausage poisoning” because it occurred following the ingestion of poorly prepared blood sausages in Stuttgart. Justinus Kerner first described the clinical features of
CHAPTER 58 – Medical applications of botulinum neurotoxins
TLDR
BTX consists of non-toxic proteins non-covalently linked with the biologically active botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), which has benefited thousands of humans and allowed them to live normal and healthy lives.
Botulinum neurotoxins: more and more diverse and fascinating toxic proteins.
  • M. Popoff
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of infectious diseases
  • 2014
TLDR
From the end of 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century, numerous cases have also been reported in the United States, mainly due to the consumption of heattreated canned vegetables, which was a novel mode of food preservation at that time and appeared that the botulism produced by the American strains differed from that of the European strains.
Botulinum Toxins: Transformation of a Toxin into a Treatment
TLDR
A time line of events in the transformation of botulinum toxin into therapeutic agents is provided and the possibility of developing hybrid molecules of BoNT that could selectively inhibit secretion or deliver desired molecules through the gastrointestinal tract and into selected cells expands the use ofBoNT at an exponential rate.
The History of Botulinum Toxins in Medicine: A Thousand Year Journey.
  • S. Whitcup
  • Medicine
    Handbook of experimental pharmacology
  • 2019
TLDR
The ability to deliver the drug locally to minimize the amount of botulinum toxin needed and thereby minimizing systemic exposure has been key to its medical utility.
From poison to remedy: the chequered history of botulinum toxin
  • F. Erbguth
  • Medicine
    Journal of Neural Transmission
  • 2007
TLDR
The toxin has been used to treat a wide variety of conditions associated with muscular hyperactivity, glandular hypersecretions and pain, and was pioneered by Alan B. Scott and Edward J. Schantz in the early 1970s, when the type-A serotype was used in medicine to correct strabismus.
Development of botulinum toxin therapy.
TLDR
Inspired by Drachman's use of toxin to safely paralyze the hind limb in chicks, the procedures for its safe medical application and licensure from 1972 to 1989 are worked out, applying it first to correct strabismus, blepharospasm, leg muscle spasm, and torticollis.
Botulinum Toxin for Headache
TLDR
Clostridium botulinum is a gram-positive, rod-shaped anaerobic bacterium, with 7 serotypes, which has exploded in the dermatologic and aesthetic realm, so that for the past 10 years this ‘‘off label’’ use has become commonplace.
Current Concepts in Botulism: Clinical and Electrophysiological Aspects
TLDR
In addition to the five major categories, BTX, because of its ease of production and extreme potency, poses a major bioweapon threat, and botulism resulting from toxin inhalation and bioterrorism can be added as the sixth category.
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TLDR
Botulinum toxin type A, one of the most lethal biologic toxins, has been found to be of therapeutic value in the treatment of a variety of neurologic and ophthalmologic disorders.
Botulinum toxin in the treatment of neurological disorders of the autonomic nervous system.
TLDR
An overview on recent indications of BoNT/A in the treatment of disorders of the autonomic nervous system and an outlook on possible future application is given.
Crystal structure of botulinum neurotoxin type A and implications for toxicity
TLDR
The crystal structure of the entire 1,285 amino acid di-chain neurotoxin was determined and the toxin appears as a hybrid of varied structural motifs and suggests a modular assembly of functional subunits to yield pathogenesis.
Focal hyperhidrosis: effective treatment with intracutaneous botulinum toxin.
TLDR
Intracutaneous botulinum toxin seems preferable to any hitherto used conservative or surgical procedures and may become the therapy of choice in pathological focal hyperhidrosis.
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TLDR
Injection of botulinum toxin into the lower esophageal sphincter is an effective, safe, and simple method of treatment for achalasia, with results that are sustained for several months.
Botulinum neurotoxin A selectively cleaves the synaptic protein SNAP-25
TLDR
It is demonstrated that BoNT/A acts as a zinc-dependent protease that selectively cleaves SNAP-25, a second component of the putative fusion complex mediating synaptic vesicle exocytosis is targeted by a clostridial neurotoxin.
Treatment of gustatory sweating with botulinum toxin
TLDR
It is concluded that BTX is a safe and effective treatment that can be recommended as the therapy of choice in gustatory sweating and did not recur over a 6‐month follow‐up.
Sialorrhea in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a hypothesis of a new treatment--botulinum toxin A injections of the parotid glands.
TLDR
Injection of the parotid glands with botulinum toxin is proposed as an new treatment for sialorrhea in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological diseases.
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TLDR
A thorough investigation of the pathological symptoms designated by the name botulism, based on the occurrence of a number of cases.
Treatment of spasticity with botulinum toxin: A double‐blind study
TLDR
This is the first demonstration of the beneficial effect of botulinum toxin on focal spastic muscle contractions and a significant improvement in the ease of nursing care.
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