Historical Introduction to Refractory Metals

@article{Habashi2001HistoricalIT,
  title={Historical Introduction to Refractory Metals},
  author={Fathi. Habashi},
  journal={Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review},
  year={2001},
  volume={22},
  pages={25 - 53}
}
  • F. Habashi
  • Published 1 January 2001
  • Physics
  • Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review
Abstract Refractory metals vary in relative abundance in the Earth's crust from highly abundant like titanium (0.44%) to the least abundant rhenium (1.0 × 10-7%). A major part of these metals occurs as oxides and complex oxides (Ti, V, Cr, Nb, Ta, W), two as sulfides (Mo, Re), and the remaining two (Zr, Hf) as silicates. Due to the lanthanide contraction and being transition metals, some of them have the same atomic radii: Zr-Hf, Nb-Ta, and Mo-W and have very similar properties. Due to these… 
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