Histological studies on Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida) with regard to environmental hydrogen sulfide resistance

  title={Histological studies on Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida) with regard to environmental hydrogen sulfide resistance},
  author={Rolf Oeschger and Hans Heinrich Janssen},
The priapulid Halicryptus spinulosus has an outstanding resistance to anoxia and hydrogen sulfide, which enables the animal to survive in deteriorating environments. Whole-body staining procedures, as well as light and scanning electron microscopy were used to study structures and mechanisms possibly involved in sulfide detoxification.The cuticle of the trunk is covered by a coat of mucus and bacteria. Within this coat considerable amounts of finely dispersed iron are precipitated, probably as… 

The body wall of Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida) — ultrastructure and changes induced by hydrogen sulfide

The ultrastructure of the body wall of specimens kept under oxic conditions is described to serve as a reference for changes induced by exposure to hydrogen sulfide.

Marine microbial thiotrophic ectosymbioses

The sulphur-oxidising chemolithotrophic nature of the bacteria and their nutritive importance to the eukaryote host have been demonstrated for the ciliates Kentrophoros spp.

Hydrogen sulphide sensitivity and tolerance in genetically distinct lineages of a selfing mangrove fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus)

This study used three distinct isogenic lineages to test the hypothesis that there would be genetic differences in H2S sensitivity and tolerance, and found significant differences in emersion concentration only among lineages, suggesting a genetic component to H 2S sensitivity but not tolerance.

Chapter 4 Biochemical and Evolutionary Aspects of Eukaryotes That Inhabit Sulfidic Environments

This chapter briefly covers current progress in understanding the biochemistry of sulfide detoxification and utilization by eukaryotes, which are most easily interpreted as evolutionary holdovers from the anoxic and sulfidic phase of ocean history.

Cuticular reticulation replicates the pattern of epidermal cells in lowermost Cambrian scalidophoran worms

It is suggested that the cuticle of early scalidophorans formed through the fusion between patches of extracellular material secreted by epidermal cells, as observed in various groups of present-day ecdysozoans, including arthropods.

The Anoxic Framvaren Fjord as a Model System to Study Protistan Diversity and Evolution

An ideal natural model system is presented to study the evolution and diversity of unicellular eukaryotes – the protists – and the knowledge that has been accumulated from the Framvaren Fjord in this field of research is summarized, evidencing the importance of such systems in evolution and biodiversity research.

Physical and chemical factors influencing species distributions on hydrothermal sulfide edifices of the Juan de Fuca Ridge , northeast

This study exarnines relationships betwei.n hydrotherrnal vent s p ~ c i e s and their surrouncling physical and chemical environment on 2 high-temperature sulfide edifices of thc Juan de F U C ~ R ~

Are palaeoscolecids ancestral ecdysozoans?

It is concluded that previous interpretations in which palaeoscolecids occupy a deeper position in the ecdysozoan tree lack particular morphological support and rely instead on a paucity of preserved characters, bears out a more general point that fossil taxa may appear plesiomorphic merely because they preserve only plesiomorphies, rather than the mélange of primitive and derived characters anticipated of organisms properly allocated to a position deep within animal phylogeny.

Julian Chela-Flores: The Science of Astrobiology: A Personal View on Learning to Read the Book of Life (Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology)

  • A. Brack
  • Biology
    Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres
  • 2012
This book offers a very rare occasion to access the full dimension of astrobiology: origin, evolution, distribution and destiny of life in the Universe.



Association of various types of epi-bacteria with Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida)

It is concluded that the epibacteria might be able to detoxify the hydrogen sulflde to some degree, provided oxygen or nitrate is available, and that the worms must rely on their own metabolism of hydrogen sulfide detoxification whenever their environment becomes anoxic.

Sulfide oxidation and carbon fixation by the gutless clamSolemya reidi: an animal-bacteria symbiosis

  • H. Felbeck
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Journal of comparative physiology
  • 2004
Findings indicate that Solemya reidi may be nourished by reduced carbon and nitrogen compounds synthesized by symbiotic bacteria housed within its gills, and by dissolved organic material present in the muds in which the animal lives.

Structural peculiarities of the body wall of Tubificoides benedii (Oligochaeta) and possible relations to its life in sulphidic sediments

The significance of the peculiar structure of the body wall and the distinct “moulting” are discussed in the light of the ecological situation of these tubificids.

Internal anatomy of Meiopriapulus fijiensis (Priapulida)

The purpose of the present paper is to compare the ultrastructure of internal organs of Meiopriapulus fijiensis with corresponding organs of Tubiluchus and Maccabeus and to highlight features differing from the latter two.

The fine structure and histochemistry of the digestive diverticula of the protobranchiate bivalve Nucula sulcata

  • G. Owen
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1973
It is now clear that the digestive diverticula of Nucula serve an absorptive and digestive function, however, that only fluid and particles of macromolecular dimensions resulting from extracellular digestion in the gastric cavity are able to enter the Diverticula.

Observations on the Stomach and Digestive Diverticula of the Lamellibranchia: II. The Nuculidae

While the Nuculidae are in many respects primitive lamellibranchs, the conclusion is reached that the digestive diverticula present many specialized features possibly correlated with the method of feeding.

Observations on the Stomach and Digestive Diverticula of the Lamellibranchia: I. The Anisomyaria and Eulamellibranchia

A study of the digestive diverticula of the Anisomyaria and Eulamellibranchia revealed certain features hitherto undescribed, including the flap-like major typhlosole which acts as a valve which controls the entry and exit of material into and out of the inhalant and exhalant portions of the main ducts.

Hydrogen sulfide oxidation by abundant nonhemoglobin heme compounds in marine invertebrates from sulfide-rich habitats

Several animals from hydrogen sulfide-rich marine habitats were found to contain unusual heme compounds (hematins) at levels of up to 10 mM; these hematins catalyzed the oxidation of sulfide and may

The Fine Structure of the Echinoderm Cuticle and the Subcuticular Bacteria of Echinoderms

The discussion considers the possible significance of this widespread, specific and apparently non-pathologic association between echinoderms and their subcuticular bacteria.