The degree of minced rat muscle regeneration in the absence of nerve fibers was compared with that of normal regenerates between one and 270 days postoperatively. Up to around 30 days, the number of muscle fibers and their morphology were comparable in both normal innervated and denervated regenerates; both showed clear cross striations and peripherally located nuclei. Histochemically, SDH and myofibrillar ATPase (pH=9.4) reactions were positive, but there were no typical signs of fiber types in either case of regeneration. The only consistent difference in the early period was the smaller fiber cross sectional areas in denervated regenerates than in innervated ones. Starting about 40 days, the muscle fibers in innervated regenerates became differentiated into different fiber types (fast-twitch-oxidative-glycolytic, FOG., fast-twitch-glycolytic, FG., slow-twitch-oxidative, SO.) but there were no such activities in denervated regenerates, although their SDH and myofibrillar ATPase reactions remained positive for a long time. Degenerating muscle fibers could no longer be identified in innervated regenerates. In the denervated regenerates, however, muscle fibers underwent atrophic or degenerative changes and were replaced by connective tissue. The complete disappearance of muscle fibers varied with individual regenerates. In some cases, it occurred about 90 days and in others, traces of muscle fibers could still be seen as late as 150 days postoperatively. Thus, nerves seem to be important primarily in the late phase of regeneration; namely, differentiation of fiber types and maintenance of the structural integrity of muscle fibers.