Histologic changes in continuous, long-term electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve.

  title={Histologic changes in continuous, long-term electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve.},
  author={P. Hershberg and D. Sohn and G. Agrawal and A. Kantrowitz},
  journal={IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering},
  volume={14 2},
The chronic stimulation of peripheral nerves has, in the past, usually been of an intermittent or relatively short-term nature. Histologic changes which have taken place have been attributed to the trauma caused by mechanical factors and/or the effects of electrical charges. Investigators, speculating on the effects of electro-stimulation, have designed electrodes specifically to minimize tissue damage. The purpose of the present investigation is to determine which pathologic alterations, if… Expand
Histologic and physiologic evaluation of electrically stimulated peripheral nerve: Considerations for the selection of parameters
It is demonstrated that axons in peripheral nerves can be irreversely damaged by 8–16 hours of continuous stimulation at 50 Hz, and the extent to which these axons may subsequently regenerate is uncertain. Expand
Diaphragm pacing: histopathological changes in the phrenic nerve following long-term electrical stimulation.
Phrenic nerves were obtained at autopsy from 7 patients with chronic ventilatory insufficiency and the fact that the nerves from 2 patients, each stimulated for about 2 years, showed no changes suggests that injury to the nerve was not caused by the electrical stimuli but rather was secondary to the technique of application and fixation of the cuff electrode to the nerves. Expand
Local anaesthetic block protects against electrically-induced damage in peripheral nerve.
It is demonstrated that blocking the action potentials on most of the nerve fibres with local anaesthetics almost completely prevents the axonal degeneration, suggesting that the damage to individual axons derives, at least in part, from stimulation-induced global changes in the nerve. Expand
Long-term intramuscular electrical activation of the phrenic nerve: safety and reliability
It is concluded from these experiments that intramuscular activation of the phrenic nerve will present a minimal risk to human patients who are good candidates for clinical studies using this technique. Expand
Long‐Term Results of Nervous Tissue Alterations Caused by Epineurial Electrode Application: An Experimental Study in Rat Sciatic Nerve
In order to evaluate the long‐term effects of epineurial electrode application for functional electrical stimulation (FES) the left sciatic nerve of seven rats was exposed and all altered nerve segments exhibited distinct signs of nerve fiber regeneration. Expand
Central Hypoventilation; Long‐term Ventilatory Assistance by Radiofrequency Electrophrenic Respiration
The first clinical application of the EPR using radiofrequency induction to obtain ventilatory assistance was reported in 1964 and was short term application in the immediate postoperative period. Expand
Electrical Activation of Respiratory Muscles by Methods Other than Phrenic Nerve Cuff Electrodes
The most succes.sful ulili/ation of functional electrical stimulation in the respiratory system, has been the use of stimulating electrodes placed on the phrenic nerves in the neck or thorax toExpand
Long-Term Excitability and Fine Tuning of Nerve Pedicles Reinnervating Strap Muscles in the Dog
Long-term, low-intensity conduction capabilities, fine tuning, good tolerance of implanted electrodes, and lack of fatigue suggest that reinnervating pedicles may be successfully used for pacing when clinically indicated. Expand
Histological assessment of nerve lesions caused by epineurial electrode application in rat sciatic nerve.
The reasons for the decrease in damage from Group 1 to Group 3 and the clinical implications of the results for long-term electrical stimulation are discussed. Expand


This report is based on a series of 125 experiments on 50 dogs in which electrical stimulation was carried out by remote excitation. In each case the stimulating electrode was placed below theExpand
Experimental Hypertension. Effects of Kieselguhr Injection and of Splanchnic Stimulation.∗
Renal denervation, or in fact total sympathectomy, does not abolish in dogs the hypertension that is associated with partial constriction of the renal arteries by Goldblatt clamps, and because of this difference, the effect on the blood pressure of dogs of injecting Kieselguhr into the renal artery has been determined. Expand
Capacity Electrode for Chronic Stimulation
An electrode is described which can be used for electrical stimulation over prolonged periods without danger of contaminating tissue with electrode products. Use of a thoroughly insulated metalExpand
Nerve electrodes for in vivo studies.
  • L. A. Cohen
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Journal of applied physiology
  • 1956
Tin foil electrodes, insulated by strips of Parafilm, are described and their use as implanted electrodes for peripheral nerve studies is recommended, especially for acute experiments. Submitted on...
A Method for the Remote Control of Electrical Stimulation of the Nervous System *
ImagesFig. 16Fig. 13Fig. 14
Prolonged Splanchnic Stimulation.∗
Conclusion The systolic blood pressure of a dog was maintained at an elevated level 8 hours a day, 6 days a week, for 5 1/2 months without producing any lasting effect on the resting level.
The erosion of electrodes by small currents.