In Situ Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in Rat Fatty Liver Induced by a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet
Free radicals induce oxidative modification in distinct components of the living matter (lipid, proteins, and DNA). For qualitative and quantitative determination of free radical-induced modifications, different, more or less sensitive biochemical methods are available. Because of the high reactivity and short life of free radicals, ongoing oxidative damage is generally analyzed by measurement of secondary products-such as H(2)O(2), oxidized proteins, peroxidized lipids, and their breakdown products, oxidized DNA-or by fluorographic analysis in combination with fluorescent dyes such as dichlorofluorescin (DCFH). In addition, the determination of free radical-related oxidation products is usually carried out in plasma, urine, or, less frequently, in bioptic material. Consequently, biochemical data seldom reflect the effects of free radical insults in situ. The histochemical visualization of selected molecular markers of oxidative damage can often provide more valuable information concerning the in vivo distribution of oxidative processes. This review summarizes the methods currently available for histochemical detection and indirect visualization of free radical-induced alterations in tissues and isolated cells.